The aim of this study was to examine the implications of active learning by investigating the effect of PI on students’ approach to learning (i.e., deep approach to learning and surface approach to learning), focusing on students’ out- of- class learning time. The PI method was implemented in a psychology course at a large university. Two questionnaires (PRE, POST) were completed by 103 students (82 male, 21 female) when the course started and ended, respectively (i.e., in April and July). The students were divided into a “high group” and “low group” according to how much time they spent on out-of-class learning, and a two-way factorial analysis of variance was used to examine the changes in their approach to learning. Whereas no effective increase was found for the deep approach to learning by the high group, a decrease for the low group has been established. These findings suggest that it is insufficient to only engage students in class; the students should also be encouraged to participate in out-of-class learning.
This study investigated the effects of three class sizes (33 or smaller, smaller than 37, 37 and larger) on 8th grade students’ engagement in homework and its change in half a year. The repeated survey on students’ teacher-assigned and self-directed homework engagement was conducted among homeroom teachers in 48 junior high schools in a particular prefecture, and it included 6793 students. The class size effect on inter-school difference of both initial level of engagement and subsequent change was examined, using a multilevel growth model. The results indicated that the three class sizes caused no difference of the initial level of engagement. It was also found that no subsequent change of students’ homework engagement in middle and large class schools, however, the students’ teacher-assigned and self-directed homework engagement in small class schools was in an upward trend.
E-learning, which is intended to facilitate the memorization of knowledge such as English vocabulary, has been found to be problematic for continuous learning. Learners need to be highly autonomous to be able to use the e-learning system at any time. Meanwhile, group learning is currently widespread due to benefits such as its motivational effectiveness. Thus, we explored the idea of connecting learners to each other through e-learning. We then examined the effectiveness of the connecting system that learners used to interact with their peers. Learners were divided into two groups: One group used the connecting system, while the other group did not, and both used the e-learning system for one month. Consequently, it was found that the connecting system had an extended effect on the duration of learners' academic workload.
In an environment such as a train, a learner has to deal with a variety of content. In this study, using performance tests and questionnaires we investigated the quantitative and qualitative impact of a mobile learning intervention, wherein learners watched videos on their mobile devices while commuting by train. With regard to understanding of content, the performance tests revealed a significant effect depending on the intervention. Further, the questionnaire indicated that many learners preferred visual content to audio content.