Memory self-ef f icacy (MSE) of older adults was investigated by examining short-term and working memory span scores in addition to relations among memory self-ef f icacy, short-term memory span, working memory span, and memory aids used in everyday life. After older adults (n = 148) responded to a pre-MSE questionnaire, they performed word span tasks, position span tasks, and symmetry span tasks. Later, they completed a post-MSE questionnaire and reported the daily life memory aids they use. The mean post-MSE score was found to be significantly lower than the mean pre-MSE score. Significant positive correlation was found only between the post-MSE score and the number of daily life memory aids, short-term memory span, and working memory span. These results suggest that performing short-term and working memory tasks in a group changes older adult memory self-ef f icacy from irrelevant to relevant.
While the demand for adult learners to acquire new skills is rising, the learning opportunities for social workers often end with a “certificate of attendance” award. As the educational providers do not confirm the skills acquired through such programs, the program quality is not guaranteed. In order to confirm skill acquisition, it is necessary to introduce post-learning assignments and strategies aimed at course completion (even after the course ends) to maintain participants’ motivation to continue learning. In an attempt to maintain and improve the participants’ motivation for completing the post-learning tasks, this research improved the design of individual feedback applied to the participants’ submitted learning outcomes in university extension courses. These included reports and worksheets, which were evaluated in order to gauge the improved individual feedback’s effectiveness. As a result, both the completion rates and the course evaluations improved. The open-ended responses to the questionnaire also suggested that introducing informational feedback and multiple opportunities for feedback increased the participants’ motivation to finish the course. Based on these results, we propose a design principle that incorporates individual feedback as a method for improving motivation for completing courses.
Project-based Learning (PBL) is often conducted in accordance with the experience and expertise of the faculty member leading a class. In this paper, methods for the continuous improvement of PBL-focused classes aimed at imparting fundamental competencies for working persons to students are discussed. Specifically, the success factors and learning outcomes for PBL-focused lessons were structuralized, and a multiple regression analysis was employed to depict the relationship between these factors and the class outcomes. The results revealed that the factors that were effective in enhancing learning outcomes, and a plan for improving such lessons was produced accordingly. Furthermore, we formulated and implemented improvement measures for PBL-focused courses offered by the Faculty of Management and Information Studies at Suwa University of Science. We confirmed that the degree of achievement of the success factors changed as a result of implementing the improvement measures. Next, the degree of achievement of learning outcomes changed accordingly. Essentially, the study revealed that, through improvements to PBL-focused lessons made as a result of depicting PBL’s success factors and learning outcomes, continuous improvement of student outcomes is possible.
In this study, we provided students with the question, “Why can the use of a convex lens create an image?” Students were taught “to use concrete examples, analogies, and illustrations in their explanation as needed” and were asked to write sentences for those who were not well-versed in the teaching target who fell into four groups: 1) their juniors by one year; 2) peers in the same grade with little understanding of the subject; 3) their seniors by one year; or 4) the student him/herself. We then analyzed whether using simple explanations or explanations with supplemental information were used in their answers, and whether knowledge was acquired accurately by assuming the teaching target. The following results were revealed: (1) Letting students imagine their teaching targets were Groups 1), 2), and 3) led them to use simple expressions. (2) Having students imagine their teaching targets were Group 1) led them to use explanations that provided supplemental information. (3) The students that imagined Group 1) as their teaching targets were more likely to acquire knowledge accurately compared to the other groups. Our study findings clarified these three points. We believe that creating a written explanation enhances the effectiveness of assuming juniors as teaching targets.
This study investigated a process model of educational information management in institutional research for education and students. Educational information management was assumed to contain four aspects: data utilization purpose, data utilization structure, database development, and data analysis and reporting. A total of 248 educational institutions responded to a nationwide questionnaire survey that was administered to four-year universities and two-year junior colleges. Covariance structure analysis revealed a set of processes in which data utilization purpose facilitated the preparation of a data utilization structure which, in turn, prompted the development of a database. Finally, data analysis and reporting were executed. It was also found that the data utilization purpose had a direct effect on data analysis and reporting. Multiple regression analyses regarding the characteristics of the institutions showed that the type and scale of the institution and its institutional mission affected the four aspects of educational information management.
Recently, during in-house human resource development, a company expects mid-level employees to expand on experiential learning through reflection. This study assesses the current state of mid-level employee reflection. We conducted semi-structured interviews targeting mid-level employees, who have improved in business performance but are not learning sufficiently from their experience, and performed an analysis based on the modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA). We found that mid-level employees requiring reflective support have a process of (1) reflecting on the problem-resolution process at work and (2) taking a multifaceted approach to examining their inner characteristics based on feedback from others. By examining internal characteristics, it could be difficult to solve a problem when employees have conflicting personal beliefs and views on work and ideal self-images. Specifically, the fact that behavior does not change due to conflict indicates the possibility that it could be the reason learning from experience is viewed as insufficient by others, including bosses. The study describes the necessity of reflective support from bosses or colleagues to encourage mid-level employees to take the initiative on personal behavioral change.
Active learning methodology, used mainly in face-to-face class environments, has been shown to improve learning. Being able to facilitate active learning in an online environment would greatly broaden the range of high-quality learning opportunities available. In this study, I developed the LearnWiz system, a web-based active learning system that can facilitate group work in an online setting. To evaluate the system’s usefulness, faculty members were asked to fill in questionnaire surveys before and after a faculty development workshop. The responses demonstrated that the participants’ understanding of the workshop’s subject matter had deepened significantly. In addition, they evaluated the system and workshop generally highly. These findings indicate that the system was both capable and effective in facilitating active learning, including group work, in an online setting.
In this study, we developed a unit involving self-regulated learning through an English lesson (Communication English III) in a third-year class in a Japanese high school. The method of “Text Detectives,” which is a mode in self-regulated learning, was applied to a unit in the textbook called “The 10,000-Hour Rule.” Af t er the “Text Detectives” lesson, the students exhibited a signif icant increase in motivation, such as self-ef f icacy and finding intrinsic value, toward English learning. Also, as a result of introducing a new text in a test, the students’ answers ref lected a spontaneous use of the methods of self-regulated learning.
The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of environmental factors of learning commons on the creativity of learners. University students (N = 48) undertook a creative and non-creative work task in two learning environments: learning commons or private study space. We investigated whether the performance of participants for each task differed depending on learning environments. We also examined the influence of presenting information on learning environments and of prior experiences of using learning commons. The results indicated that the performance of participants for the creative task in learning commons by the group with prior experience was superior to that of the group without such experience. Moreover, the performance of participants for the non-creative task in learning commons was superior to that in the private study space. Furthermore, presenting information on the learning environment to learners reduced their performance for the non-creative task in both learning environments. Based on the aforementioned results, we have discussed the effects of physical environments in learning commons, and how they could adequately improve the design and practical usage of the learning environments. Based on f i ndings, we suggested approaches in which learners can eff i ciently perform autonomous and collaborative learning in learning commons.
The objective of this research is to concretely clarify the educational experiences that contribute to the growth and development of school middle teachers who are in charge of school innovation. Two public high schools engaging in school innovation were chosen as research targets, and interview surveys were conducted with five school middle teachers. An analysis applying the trajectory equifinality approach revealed what school middle teachers experience following either the pioneer trajectory or the fellow trajectory as part of the division of school administrative duties. Concretely, the results suggest that pioneer trajectory teachers propose ideas for school innovation within their duty area and coordinate relationships between teachers in the same duty area and those in other duty areas, and they exhibit stronger leadership qualities than fellow trajectory teachers. Conversely, fellow trajectory teachers had experiences of autonomously assuming roles different from the pioneer trajectory teachers. When moving along their trajectory, teachers encounter collisions with school cultures that emphasize teaching exam techniques, etc., and it was revealed that school middle teachers had experience of forming cooperative structures from colleague groups and then receiving support from senior colleagues.