Large-scale fire fighting was investigated, including a comparison between high-pressure and low-pressure manual fire fighting systems and measurements of heat stress on fire fighters. Six tests were performed in a room measuring 14.0 × 7.7 m². The fuel in each test consisted of wooden pallets arranged in 6 stacks with 13 pallets in each stack. Weight loss, gas temperature, heat radiation and room pressure were measured. The nozzle pressures were 7 bar and 25 bar and the flow rates were 1.92, 3.83 and 5.75 kg/s. The tests showed that the ability to reach the burning fuel with water limits the capacity of the fire-fighting attack. The high-pressure system proved more efficient than the low-pressure system. It gave a faster response and required a lower flow to attain the same extinction effect as the low-pressure system.
A comparison of the Japanese and European fire classification systems for surface linings is presented focusing on heat release. The fire test methods and criteria for product classes are described, as well as the background of the class limits. The Japanese and European fire classification systems have a common reference scenario: fire in a small room. The test methods used in the classification are different in Japan and Europe, but the basic principle in the definition of the product performance classes is the same. The main test methods for heat release of construction products in the Japanese and European fire classification systems are the cone calorimeter and the SBI test, respectively. A one-dimensional thermal flame spread model was applied to predict SBI test results on the basis of cone calorimeter data. A good correlation between the experimental and predicted Euroclasses was found. The Japanese and European classifications on the basis of the cone calorimeter and SBI tests were compared for a series of 33 building products. For the majority of products, the classification systems are well consistent. However, different test methods and classification parameters cause inconsistencies in certain cases. The correspondence of classifications can be found by examining the product type and composition, and considering the features of the main fire tests of the classification systems.
A series of full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the smoke propagation behavior for t²-fires. The effect of corridor arrangement (size and smoke curtains) were analyzed. The corridor size and smoke curtains have beneficial effect to delay the smoke propagation to downstream corridors. In the experiments, quick mixing of smoke after the decay of fire was observed that result in blockage of corridors. In the prediction of smoke layer by using zone models, this effect is not taken into account. Thus there is a need to revise zone type equations to include smoke-air mixing during post decay period.
A new simple estimation model was described on excess temperature and velocity of ceiling jet under the flat, horizontal and sloped ceiling of an unconfined room from a t²-fire. This simple model was composed of ceiling height (H), distance along ceiling from the impinging point (r), and heat release rate (Q) which was given as a t²-fire. This model was verified by the experimental data which were conducted using at² model fire with ceiling heights of 2m, 2.1m, 4m, 8m, 15m and 20m. Flat and sloped ceiling with smooth surface was also used as a model ceiling, and those experimental data were used to verify the model. This model can deal with the cases of a corner fire and a wall fire for its early stages, and also verified by the data of corner and wall fires. The model for excess temperature and velocity with suitable RTI gave the estimation on the operation time of heat detector and sprinkler.