Since circa 1555, the Portuguese had already settled in Macao. Although surrounded by Chinese cities, Macao managed for 400 years to preserve and develop the Portuguese characteristics that are apparent in the city architecture. This western characteristic is what nowadays makes Macao different from its neighbors and is the backbone of the city's unique "Cultural Identity" (CI). The city CI is such an important factor that the People's Republic of China proposed to UNESCO that they include Macao in the World Heritage list. Considering that more than 95% of the population is of Chinese origin, we now raise an important question: what was the process of Macao's foundation and how was it possible to maintain the Portuguese characteristics for so long amidst a sea of Asian civilization and culture? The answer is important, not only in understanding the city's history, but also to make it possible to preserve the Macao CI for future generations. Following a comparative method of analysis of the similarities and differences with other overseas Portuguese cities in Asia, and after researching the historical evolution of Macao, we identified the key elements and clues that could provide the answer to this important question. The conclusions of the research point to the identification of the Portuguese principles for settling, and the Iberian institutions' responsibility in maintaining the Portuguese characteristics that reflect the city's social organization. The western cultural identity of the city was generated by its Iberian institutions through a compatible parallel development with the Chinese towns which occupy the same peninsula.
Since 1949 China has built over 86,000 dams, which has resulted in the involuntary resettlement of up to 12,000,000 people. The major issue concerning resettlement is housing as this most directly affects the quality of life of those who are resettled. China has achieved significant results in resettlement housing construction; however the complexities of this resettlement process has raised tough problems. For example, there are regional diversities, rural vs. urban resettlement housing diversities and housing construction diversities resulting from different resettlement procedures. Following site investigation of 13 resettlement-housing zones in China, the author of this paper attempts to offer a systematic, analytical evaluation of the resettlement housing policies and current housing conditions in Chinese dam resettlement.
This study was initiated to clarify the significance of urban green open space by obtaining data on, and illustrating details concerning Shanghai urban inhabitants′ daily leisure activities and sites. The authors have carried out a small-scale questionnaire around People′s Square in Shanghai, with this topic as its focus. The method of the questionnaire was that of an objective spot check. The authors have carried out some statistical work and analyzed the data as follows: interviewee′s age, gender, occupation, educational level, daily leisure time, leisure categories, leisure sites, reasons for choices, motivation of leisure, and main opinions regarding outdoor leisure sites. Finally, the authors have drawn the following conclusions: Present Shanghai urban inhabitants have relatively adequate daily leisure time and disposable income, but the categories of leisure activities are small and most of them are traditional and static in form. Compared to western developed countries, the leisure standards of Shanghai urban inhabitants are still in the early stages, and the present number of outdoor leisure sites are too few. The distribution of these sites within the city is poor, outdoor leisure sites should be low in cost or free, and with public green open space as the most popular type, afforestation efforts should be greatly enhanced in Shanghai. The designers of the sites should take into account differences in age among the users, and the management and maintenance systems should also be perfected.
This paper investigates existing architectural projects and outlines the developing trends in architectural design. Currently, the skyscraper design issues in Taiwan tend to follow two completely different architectural trends: the first is architecture as a symbol of the society, technology and economy. This approach has generated some new struggles in such fields as esthetics and cultural representation. The second approach is the skyscraper as a public characteristic, to which citizens could relate to the physical aspects and usage. By studying typical projects in Taiwan, this paper aims to show that: 1. the Taiwanese skyscraper design trend has changed from an emphasis on technology to formalism, and finally to building image symbolism. 2. In Taiwan the role of architectural symbolism is relatively important, as these new skyscrapers aim to project the essential characteristics of Taiwan social culture. 3. Although skyscrapers are traditionally private buildings they share many important characteristics with the public as a quasi-public character.
Observations of children playing in the neighborhoods of six cities in Vietnam present alternative views to the transaction of children′s activities and their neighborhood environment. They indicate that children′s activities are of such a complicated nature that each has in it a countable number of sub-activities called individual actions. Activity is a composite of these small actions and can successfully be defined by a structure of the interrelationships among these actions. This activity structure was analyzed and defined in terms of three dimensions – sequential relationship, dependence interaction, and dominance configuration. Data also indicates that children′s activity is dependent on environment because its individual actions interact with environmental resources. Environmental resources are elements and qualities of children′s sociophysical environments required critically in the process of realizing the actions. Children in need of activity demand certain resources from the environment to realize the activity. It is, thus, suggested that individual actions, and activity as well, emerge as a result of the correlation between needed resources and found resources. This view demands an analysis that takes the interaction of individual action and environmental resource as a unit of analysis and as a way to operationalize human activity.
With the rapid development of Chinese universities and colleges in the past few years, there has been a significant increase in the population of enrolled students accompanied by a big expansion of campus area. These changes have influenced and are influencing the campus residential environment and lifestyles. As a result, the issue of their relationships should call for more attention. Due to the differences in personal values and campus lifestyles, students′ demands on the residential environment show diversity. In the case study of Hangzhou City, China, viewpoints concerning personal attributes, residential preferences and campus conditions to represent the residential lifestyles on campus were introduced and analyzed. Six university campuses were selected as survey objectives in order to comprehensively demonstrate campus environment conditions in the city. Four patterns of campus residential lifestyle were classified by residential preferences; and their characteristics were compared through subjective evaluation and objective conditions. The results of this research provide the basic data for future work in the improvement of the Chinese campus environment. Furthermore, the methodology of characterizing residential lifestyles may bring about a new useful perspective for further research on the evaluation of residential environment.
This study investigates the impact of a garden on the psychological well-being of pediatric patients, aged 2 to 12 years, by determining their preferences concerning the domains (properties and attributes) of gardens and wards of two hospitals in Malaysia. The preference is a behavioral response observed by the caregivers, mothers and nurses. It is elicited using two sets of administered questionnaires; Set A for mothers (n=360) and Set B for nurses (n=43). From Set A, 94% of the mothers found that more patients preferred the garden than the ward. The mean preference scores of the garden are greater than the ward in 11 domains including refreshing smell, fresh air, full of light, cheerful environment, pleasant sound, scenic view, open space, free to play, not confined, home feeling, and place for variety of activities. From Set B, the nurses found that the patients preferred the garden more than the ward because it allows them to: (1) play freely and safely either alone or with peers, (2) escape from the confined ward environment into an open space where they can observe animals, and (3) gain control on their movements. As a result the patients feel cheerful and are more agile, suggesting their cognitive functioning is restored.
The concept of sustainability has become a new paradigm in worldwide urban planning and development. The compact city concept has recently been the most popular alternative among sustainable urban development strategies. Although it has become a global strategy, it should also consider the local characteristics of cities. This study, using attributes developed from the main aspects of sustainability, first of all aims at measuring city compactness and some of its tendencies in two different regions within Japan. These are the Greater Tokyo Area, comprised of 110 cities within 4 prefectures, and the Tohoku Region, with 63 cities in 6 prefectures. Secondly, the results of the measurements and appearance of the tendencies will be appropriately discussed to implement future compactness strategy. Of course, clear differences between both regions would carry different policy measures for compactness development in their respective regions. With the cities′ data, which provide appropriate indicators, this study is able to present the conditions of cities based on attributes of city compactness and their tendencies in various types of cities within the two different regions. The results will be useful in preparing an appropriate strategy to deliver more compactness in these cities.
Louis Sullivan′s dictum ″Form follows function″ can be changed to ″Form follows feng-shui″ in Eastern Asia; even today in the 21st century, feng-shui still constrains the design of residential layouts in Taiwan and Korea. In this paper we describe a generative system for form and space planning that supports the schematic design phase of housing through both functional and feng-shui constraints. The functional constraints include the size of each space component, adjacency, etc. The exterior environment of a house and making use of interactive relationship between the five-elements (wu-xing) are feng-shui constraints, which provide geometric information and suggest location and orientation of each component according to the resident′s personal information. We have implemented a prototype to illustrate how this works for residential space planning. The prototype augments a conventional CAD software with a knowledge-based system and a set of graphical user interface applications.
This paper attempts to develop a management instrument for housing arrangements under given constraints regarding household annual CO2 emissions (HACO2). HACO2 was defined as the sum of the life cycle CO2 emission from house construction and operation (LCCO2) and the CO2 emission from commuting (CTCO2). Under such an instrument rule, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to find a housing arrangement scheme in pursuit of the maximum average gross floor area (GFA) in an urban area. Simulation tests were performed and compared on three traffic modes: public-mode, self-mode, and mixed-mode. The results indicated that, 1) the closer the house was to the workplace (the nucleus of the city), the larger the GFA would be; 2) different traffic modes might lead to different patterns of housing arrangement; and 3) the self-mode had high-energy demand resulting in the lowest evaluation value, and was the least efficient in obtaining better living conditions under the constraints.
The morphology of the agriculture-based deltaic settlement in the Western Basin of Chaophraya Delta is explained through an analysis of the correlation between the following factors; topographical conditions and historical and social background. This also reflected the production from land development, and the settlement formation process. We separated the pattern of settlement formation into 3 types; (1) Multi-centric network settlement, (2) Strip-axis settlement, and (3) Single-centric settlement. These were then classified through consideration of an analysis process on the geographical section of the north-south and west-east axis of the Delta. As well as adapting to the deltaic topographical features, it could be considered that the patterns and transformation process of these settlements were based in paralleled with; (1) initiation of the Phrai system, and (2) a declination of the Phrai system. The Chinese traders, who organized the waterfront market network, could also be considered the key persons who motivated this process. It could be considered that the multi-centric network settlement was developed under the influence of the Phrai system, while the fish-bone type strip-axis settlement was developed after a declination of the Phrai system.
What has our present-day city lost, and what should we inherit or reproduce? We can find the answer by observing the historical transformation of the local orders in space. Natural geographical features and site allocation patterns often help us to understand these hidden orders. Reconstructing the principles for city architecture in modern cities, which is suitable for the present high-density city environment, will ensure the flexible transformation and the sustainable development of the urban fabric over a long period of time.
The purpose of this study is to identify regional planning issues and measures implemented to resolve such issues in city and regional master plans, particularly in the Naha and Koza city planning areas, by primarily examining the awareness of municipal government officials, and also to identify measures concerning regional planning issues in both master plans. Municipal government officials are aware of regional planning issues, and each municipality is dealing with issues such as sprawl, waning city centers and traffic congestion in its own way. There were also cases where several municipalities worked together to resolve these issues. Moreover, although regional master plans address a few of these issues, they are still not sufficient. The following three measures can be considered regarding the resolution of municipal regional planning issues: 1) Coordination among municipalities to deal with problems, 2) Addressing of problems in a uniform manner according to the regional master plan, and 3) Ensuring that the upper-level plans are consistent throughout, and that actions are taken according to such plans.
The function of urban space in multi-ethnic network formation by ethnic minorities in urban mixed-use district, in Wanchai, Hong Kong, was studied in this paper. A hearing survey was conducted in February 2004 to collect the chronology of network development with people in HK, as fundamental analysis. It was found that five urban space components are important for formation of a multi-ethnic network in the mixed-use district. These are (1) Entertainment business (tourism) related - bars, discos, nightclubs, ethnic restaurants; (2) Construction related - architects, engineering firms, interior material retailing showrooms; (3) Public leisure facilities - open public parks, basketball grounds, playgrounds; (4) Public places - streets, market places; (5) Residence - self or others. Sequences of multi-ethnic network formation in these places were analysed in a networked graph, though the representation of ″an ethnic minority gather with acquaintances in one place (X) has his acquaintance network extends and gather in other place (Y)″ by a directional network relationship between sender (X) and receiver (Y). It is found that among these components, (1) and (2) are the major places, which attract ethnic minorities to form multi-ethnic networks in Wanchai. From networks formed in these places, further networks are induced to form in places (3) and (5) and further to (4). A directional relationship of multi-ethnic formation in these places suggests the process of multi-ethnic network formation and extension in the mixed-use district.
In Metropolitan Cairo, squatter urbanism is common in superimposing building blocks and streets on agricultural land subdivisions at the city edge of rural migration phenomenon. However, the socio-economic dimension of residential spaces is undermined in the management of squatters. This study attempts to clarify the social diversity of spatial structuring that can only be conceived at the room-level of Cairo squatters in contrast to the constant image of outdoor rural-urban transformation. Buildings selected from the ′Bigam′ and ′Zinin′ squatters that absorb rural migrants are studied according to their spatial room-connection. The application of spatial measurements on the sample buildings is processed through statistical programming to view their patterns of room connection. In ′Bigam′, rural migrants from Lower Egypt structure a ′Reception′ core of global flow of choice to connect four-cornered room attachment. The spatial structure diversifies by introducing a ′Living′ space of visible connectivity with the ′Reception′ and control over the bedroom corners. In ′Zinin′, the Upper Egypt migrants structure a linear pattern of residential space. The cellular connection of rooms diversifies the coring role by the ′Reception′ to become an optional secondary choice. Nevertheless, both zones of ′Zinin′ lack ′Living′ spaces to dissolve the grouping pattern of rooms without variety of choice. Instead, ′Bedrooms′ allow visibility for socializing through the conceptual merging of living and bedroom spaces into one.
A simulation methodology has been proposed for evaluating the performance of LCCO2 emission of the roof shape of a Wooden Detached House (WDH) using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Annual LCCO2 emission acting as an evaluation index was studied in this paper. The geometrical shape of a roof located in Tokyo is simulated by a Béier surface. Two types of roofs are considered in this paper: the Tiled roof shape (TRS) and the Green roof shape (GRS). Two kinds of boundary condition, which are fixed corners with free boundaries and fixed boundaries, are taken into account for both TRS and GRS. Through numerical roof shape representation evaluated by GA, we conclude that: 1) A flattened TRS is more efficient in minimizing LCCO2 emission; 2) Dome-shaped GRS with a larger surface area and fully covered with green lawn performs the best in LCCO2 emission minimization; 3) CO2 absorption by green lawn has a significant effect in minimizing total LCCO2 emission from the roof of WDH, and even LCCO2 emission with a value below zero may occur when green lawn is laid out on a rooftop.
This paper discusses the appropriate design for super high-rise housing. The population of Tokyo, which had been decreasing, began increasing again in 1997. High-rise and super high-rise housing, which allow people to live in urbanized areas, are some of the factors behind this population growth. Super high-rise housing is a new living environment, one that is cross-sectional rather than planar. Creating these residential spaces requires a design technique incorporating a multiplicity of layers on the premises, as well as input from the prospective residents. This paper describes one part of the design technique for super high-rise housing. The research was conducted at Ohkawabata River City 21, a model of super high-rise urban housing. The research included a questionnaire, aggregative analysis theory, and aggregate curve. From the above research, the attributions of environmental cognition and life territory were determined, particularly those regarding the floors of residents of super high rise towers. This paper provides the appropriate attribution of the data for the design technique.
This paper is Part 3 of the ″Study on Living Space Planning in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia″ a study that focuses on the residential and living environments of apartment districts in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and their relationship to the daily activities of the residents in those districts and the perceptions of those residents regarding their lifestyles. The goal of the study is to determine the trends and characteristics of residential and living spaces in apartment districts in urban parts of Ulaanbaatar, in order to identify the unique Mongolian approach to living space planning that is grounded in the intricate interrelationships among people, activities, and spaces. In this part of the study, the impressions of residents and the nature of their activities as well as the individual opinions of individual residents, obtained through a questionnaire survey conducted at two apartment complexes with differing layouts, were used to determine the current status of residential and living environments in apartment districts in urban parts of Ulaanbaatar. Through a comparative analysis of the specific activities of apartment residents and their evaluations of these activities, the status and characteristics of residential and living environments at apartment complexes was identified. In addition, improvements needed for residential and living environments and daily and community activities at apartment complexes were also considered in order to identify issues to be resolved in the future.
In order to improve the functional layout of acute wards to cope with modern changes, this paper aims at examining the current nursing activities in two acute hospitals, and clarifying the requirements of ward planning from the nurses′ standpoint. As a first study, two nurses on day duty and all nurses on evening and night duties were followed and observed in every nursing unit. A second observation study was carried throughout the day duty (8:00am-5:00pm) on the same day of the following week. For this latter study, five observers were positioned in designated locations and recorded the time of entering and exiting of all the nurses to each room in the ward. A questionnaire and an interview survey were also carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the nurses′ evaluation of the ward planning. As a result of this study, the following five items were highlighted: 1. The actual situation of the nursing activities was obtained. 2. The investigated data was compared with those obtained in previous studies. 3. The influential factors affecting nursing activities were discussed. 4. Design guidelines set up in the past were reconsidered. 5. Problems concerning the rooms′ layout were pointed out.
A housing supply project named the National Comfortable Housing Project was carried out by the Chinese government from 1995 to 1998 as a very important instrument in advancing urban housing reform. Through this project the Chinese government invested over 220 billion RMB and provided over 260 million square metres of floor area to households. In Beijing city, about 52,000 households, which had a floor area per capita of less than 4 square metres had their living standard improved. On the basis of a careful review of the National Comfortable Housing Project performance, we conclude that China′s current affordable housing supply system is mainly built upon the successful implementation of the Project in the 1990s.
Greater use of ISO quality standards is needed to increase the penetration of South Korean construction companies into foreign markets. There have been significant problems in the stable implementation of ISO 9001 in architectural design and engineering firms, which appear to be caused by lack of recognition and comprehension of standards requirements. This research aims to deduce improvement measures by analyzing nonconformity results published when a certification body audits companies. One hundred and twenty three nonconformity reports from six companies that have been audited periodically from 2000 to 2004 by the certification body have been analyzed and classified. Thirty-four causes of nonconformity were found in 10 areas. The research showed that corrective actions for nonconformity were closely connected with all management activities. Consequently, specific corrective actions should be implemented to achieve ISO 9001 quality standards in architectural design and engineering firms.
The existing deterministic solution for prediction model of corrosion initiation cannot reflect input variable uncertainties very well. Thus there is a growing tendency for a stochastic model based on the probabilistic method to be developed and applied. This paper presents an approach to the fuzzy arithmetic based modeling of the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures that takes into account the uncertainties in the physical models of chloride penetration into concrete and corrosion of steel reinforcement, as well as the uncertainties in the governing parameters, including concrete diffusivity, concrete cover depth, surface chloride concentration and critical chloride level for corrosion initiation. There are a lot of models for predicting the onset time of reinforcement corrosion of structures exposed to corrosion environment. In this work, the RILEM model formula and Crank's solution of Fick's second law of diffusion are used. The parameters of the models are regarded as fuzzy numbers with proper membership function adapted to statistical data of the governing parameters, while the fuzziness of the corrosion time is determined by the fuzzy arithmetic of the interval arithmetic and extension principle. An analysis is implemented by comparing the deterministic calculation with fuzzy arithmetic for the above two prediction models.
An outdoor exposure-testing program for architectural coatings was conducted in Tsukuba from 1987-1997. Observed gross retention of samples set horizontally, 5-deg. south and 30-deg. south was on average severer than that of 90-deg. south, while the conditions of 90-deg. north are more moderate. The lightness of white samples decreased during the early part of the first year and was almost constant, thereafter. Delta L* of 90-deg. south and 90-deg. north is smaller than that of horizontal, 5-deg. south and 30-deg. south. Koike and Tanaka′s equation is a more appropriate analytical method regarding the weatherability of exposed paints and coatings than the conventional system, which uses solar UV.
Since a construction project involves a series of activities that utilize resources to achieve its goal within a given time period, efficient resource management is a prerequisite for its success. Two major techniques of resource management are resource constrained scheduling (RCS), which focuses on limited resource availability, and resource leveling, which focuses on a smooth resource usage pattern for a fixed project completion time. Although they can successfully generate schedules that accomplish their own objectives, they have certain limitations. RCS assumes a single fixed resource supply, and resource leveling may not improve the smoothness of resource usage beyond a certain level due to the fixed project completion time. In order to overcome these limitations, this study proposes a model to enhance the minimum moment algorithm of resource leveling for the efficient use of resources within an appropriate project completion time.
To assess the parameters influencing the seismic performance of plastic hinge regions in Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns, eight large-scale and eight small-scale cantilevered RC columns were tested under various vertical and horizontal loading patterns. Three different axial loads were imposed on the columns: a constant moderate load, a constant high load, and a varying axial load. In addition to this, there were three lateral loading patterns: uni-directional, square, and circular. The high axial load and bi-directional loading had a significant influence on the envelope curves as well as on the damage progress. The observed damage to large-scale columns was much more severe than that observed in the small-scale columns. The equivalent viscous damping for specimens under varying axial load was between the damping of the specimens under moderate to high axial load. An increase in the number of cycles caused a rapid degradation of the envelope curve of the load-displacement history. However, no significant effect was observed on the maximum lateral load carrying capacity, peak load. Analytical FEM results such as load-displacement, moment-curvature and axial strain shortening-curvature relations, closely matched the experimental results.
Ferrocement′s attribute as a thin reinforced concrete and laminated cement based composite enables numerous applications where strong and tough protective shell is needed. It is used in the construction of cylindrical and spherical shells as liquid retaining structures. The stress condition at a point in such shell structures is biaxial state of tension-tension. A study on the behaviour of ferrocement in biaxial state is important for establishing a rational design. The authors carried out a full-fledged investigation on ferrocement under different biaxial stress conditions. The present investigation deals with the study of ferrocement in biaxial tension-tension based on hollow cylindrical specimens. An interaction curve is proposed to estimate the strength of ferrocement in biaxial tension-tension. The relationship between octahedral normal and shear stress is also presented.
″Priority Urban Redevelopment Areas″ in Tokyo, Japan, are currently undergoing large-scale urban renewal. However, the heat island phenomenon has become a serious problem in large cities in Japan. We surveyed the temperature and wind conditions in two adjacent areas: a new skyscraper district on the coast (A district) and a typical inland urban district (B district). Our observations indicated local temperature increases and unstable wind with weak velocity in B district. It is possible that differences in the wind environment influence the local temperature. We analyzed the relationship between undulations in ground level and the wind environment by wind tunnel experiments. The results confirmed that there was a weak wind area in B district located behind A district from the direction of the coastline. Our findings indicate that it is important to consider the heat island phenomenon in urban planning in order to make best use of the cooling effect of the breeze from the sea at waterfront areas.
With the rapid urbanization of Tokyo, many rivers were covered with concrete, mainly to provide open spaces or roads and for the development of public sewerage lines, etc. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the importance of rivers in cities for the improvement of urban environment problems, e.g., heat islands, as well as to provide recreational spaces close to rivers for city dwellers. It is important to arrange green spaces along with access to rivers to improve the urban environment. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of reviving the covered rivers in Tokyo′s 23 wards. An evaluation index was made based on field research of the present condition of covered rivers: i.e., conditions of open spaces above covered rivers, water supply, and reservoir setting to rewater the rivers. Of the covered rivers examined, 0.7% qualified for revival with respect to all of these physical conditions. Research into the volume of sump water is expected to provide new methods for reviving covered rivers and the percentage of revival may increase.
The purpose of this survey was to examine the actual conditions of residential indoor air quality in urban areas in China. In this survey, the concentrations of about 16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and two carbonyl compounds were measured at 75 apartments in seven Chinese cities, viz., Urumqi, Harbin, Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Chongqing, and Kunming. In this paper, the measurement results for six VOCs and two carbonyl compound concentrations are summarized. It was found that the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde were relatively high.
The purpose of this study was to propose a building energy management process, verify the proposed model by applying energy management techniques in a real office building, and develop an empirical approach for predicting building energy use with regression analysis. This study proposed the four major energy management steps: energy audit, energy analysis, identifying and evaluating the energy saving opportunities, and retrofit implementation and follow-through. For the prediction of energy use, simple regression models were developed based on historical energy consumption data as a function of daily outside temperatures, while the predicting equations were derived for different operational modes and day types. By selecting a real building as a case study, the feasibilities of the building energy management process and the empirical approach for predicting building energy use have been examined.
Urban development has made life convenient and comfortable. Travel has become faster, communication has become easier. However, there are externalities that we need to face due to urban development; the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and its recent enforcement has led signatory countries to limit and propose ways on how to achieve the reduction in emissions by 2012. One aspect of proposed reduction is to make urban development sustainable. Urban development is related to infrastructure systems that generations build for the improvement of the quality of life. Construction of residential and non-residential buildings in cities is part of the infrastructure systems that we need to assess to be able to achieve the 6% reduction limit of carbon emissions. This paper studies the changes of carbon emissions induced by residential construction. To be able to assess the future requirements of society in terms of infrastructure facilities and its sustainability, a study on the historical changes of carbon emissions and the relationship of material requirements to emissions are necessary. The Input-Output Approach coupled with Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) is used to analyze the impacts of Japanese residential construction on the environment. The changes in construction technology, emission structure and material manufacturing technology are studied in this paper. It can be shown that these changes contribute to the fluctuations in the carbon emissions from residential construction during the 15-year study period.
Urban surface albedo, which is one of the important factors of the urban heat island phenomenon, was used to evaluate urban land use regulations. Broadband albedo at the surface level of Sakai City, Japan, was calculated, and effects of land use regulations and actual land use were estimated using satellite remote sensing data, a land use regulation map and detailed digital information expressing actual land use. Land use regulations define land use, maximum building coverage ratios and maximum floor area ratios, which relate the heights of buildings to the areas of their sites. These factors have effects upon broadband albedo and each narrowband albedo corresponding to wavelengths observed by Landsat ETM+. Albedo values differed according to land use regulation zones. The combination of land use regulation and actual land use is also meaningful in grasping urban surface albedo. But this relationship may provide only slight insight into the urban heat island phenomenon.
The curtain wall is presently being adopted widely in high-rise buildings because of its several merits in many aspects. Curtain walls, however, also have problems, such as thermal efficiency and moisture condensation, especially in countries where there are four seasons like Korea, because of wide glazing windows and metal frames that have high thermal conductivity. Furthermore, insulation efficiency is more important in high-rise buildings than in low-rise buildings when outdoor conditions worsen. There are two main objectives in this research; first, to perform steady state conduction simulations for curtain wall materials in high-rise outdoor conditions, and second, to evaluate insulation efficiency and moisture condensation on curtain wall surfaces based on the results of the simulations.
In this paper, using the integrated surface observations for 430 Chinese locations, equations for estimating heating degree-days and cooling degree-hours were developed. The distribution of heating degree-days and cooling degree-hours was clarified and contour maps of heating degree-days and cooling degree-hours were created. Based on these maps, a new climatic zoning was proposed for the thermal design of residences in China.
Expanded AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) design weather data were developed for various locations in Japan. They were produced by selecting the extreme-weather days from Expanded AMeDAS Weather Data using two weather indices. The present paper examined the extremity of the proposed design weather data and the availability for HVAC system design. The cumulative frequencies of occurrence for several daily values of the design weather data and the probability of the thermal load exceeding the design peak load calculated using the design weather data were used for the examination and evaluation. The validity of the proposed design weather data was confirmed through the examination.
In this research, semi-transparent PV is proposed as building integrated PV roof for residential application. To understand its characteristics, field measurement was carried out to examine the power generation, thermal and visible light transmission performance of poly-crystalline silicon single glass, poly-crystalline silicon double glass and amorphous silicon single glass semi-transparent PV panels in prototype scale. To confirm parameters needed in accessing semi-transparent PV panels which are seldom provided by manufacturers, calculation models were constructed and verified with field measurement data. This paper reports the findings of experimental and modeling work, which will be fundamental for evaluating semi-transparent PV in overall building energy performance in a later stage of the research. In this study, power generation temperature coefficients are obtained for each panel. For thermal characteristics, various material properties of panels are confirmed. The overall heat transfer coefficients are 4.587 W/m2K, 2.007 W/m2K and 4.379 W/m2K for p-Si single glass, p-Si double glass and a-Si single glass panel respectively. With respect to visible light transmission, semi-transparent PV possesses similar light transmission characteristics with glazing material, and thus could be modeled in the same way as normal glazing material.
″The California energy crisis of 2000,″ like a bomb exploding in a crowd, alerted the world to the issues surrounding safe and secure energy supply. Increasing energy demand calls for an expanding supply system in order to realize a stable supply of energy. On the other hand, environmental problems such as global warming, the heat island phenomenon, resource depletion, and so on, call for a more efficient and energy-saving supply system. With these as a background, load leveling, one of the effects of DSM (Demand Side Management), is considered to be an effective method. In this paper, 24-hour investigations on SOHO (Small Office Home Office), residential buildings and offices were conducted in the central Tokyo area. Based on the results, the monthly and hourly energy consumption characteristics of SOHO were ascertained. In addition, the dimensionless parameters, load leveling ratio rl and energy saving rate rs were defined. Using rl, SOHO was proven to have profound effects on load leveling; and using rs, the energy saving potential was evaluated quantitatively.
In hot and humid climates, one draw back of using shading devices is the risk of reducing daylight level which in turn increases the use of artificial lighting. It is important to understand the magnitude of energy consumption for cooling and lighting when shading devices are adapted in order to propose optimum external horizontal shading strategies as design solutions. This study investigates the effect of six different alternatives of external horizontal shading devices on incident solar radiation, transmitted solar heat gains, natural-light penetration and energy consumption. The study was carried out using a standard, single fenestration perimeter office room in a typical high-rise office building. The investigation is conducted using eQUEST-3, which is a dynamic energy simulation program supported by DOE2.2 calculation engine. The results showed several optimum geometry of the external horizontal shading device depending on incident direct solar radiation, transmitted solar heat gains, natural-light penetration and energy consumption. This study concludes, considering the trade off between total heat gain and natural-light penetration to optimize the total energy consumption as the best option in designing external solar shading in hot and humid climates.
In this paper, we investigate and analyze the situation of building demolition and construction and the phenomenon of discharging construction waste in Kitakyushu City, Japan in 2002. The amount of construction waste and its processing method are clarified according to the type of structure. An outline of the demolition of a city-owned housing complex has been presented based on statistical data from Kitakyushu City. Furthermore, using examples of housing complexes, we discuss the process of demolition and construction in 2001 and 2002. We also analize the discharge amount of demolition and construction wastes, the treatment method and the schedule of each demolition construction project, etc.