[Purpose] This study develops a scale titled the Work-Life Balance Achievement Scale for Nurses, and investigates its reliability and validity.
[Methods] A preliminary version of the scale was developed with reference to a framework of five fields of personal achievement for work-life balance. These were proposed by a committee of public and private sector executives to promote work-life balance, of the Council for Gender Equality. Items were first examined by an expert panel to confirm the scale's content validity. They were further refined through a pretest and a preliminary survey. The scale was then tested on 600 nurses. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated to measure internal consistency, and a principal factor analysis with promax rotation was performed to verify construct validity and determine factor structure, with the following criteria: ≤0.2 for communality, <0.4 for factor loadings, and >0.4 for factor loadings other than these factors. To assess concurrent validity, correlation coefficients between the scale and another scale assessing job satisfaction with regard to workplace environment, role content, and salary developed by Adachi (1998) were calculated.
[Results] There were 218 (36.3%) valid responses. The final version of the scale had 28 items and five factors: time management, work challenges/support in the workplace, how to spend time outside work, how to spend time at home/support from family members, and switching from work to personal life. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the factors ranged from 0.65 to 0.902, and relatively strong correla-tions were found between scores on the present scale and Adachi's (r = 0.633, p < 0.01).
[Conclusion] The scale developed has adequate internal consistency and content, construct, and concur-rent validity.
Purpose: To develop a Learning Needs Assessment Tool for Clinical Instructors, which has well-estab-lished reliability and validity.
Methods: There were three stages in developing the scale: (a) Making items for the scale based on qualitative and inductive research findings. (b) Examining the content validity with a panel of experts and a pilot study. (c) Conducting two surveys and testing the reliability and validity of the scale.
Results: A Learning Needs Assessment Tool for Clinical Instructors (LNATI), which had 21 items with a 6-point Likert scale, was constructed using the afore-mentioned three stages. In the 1st survey, the instrument packets, including the LNATI and a demographic questionnaire, were distributed to 1,309 clinical instructors who work at hospitals all over Japan. Seven hundred and fifty three clinical instructors (57.5%) responded, and 698 valid data were analyzed. Cronbach's alpha, a reliability coeffi- cient of the LNATI, was 0.922. The result signifies that the LNATI has high internal consistency. Aspir-ing clinical instructors had higher learning needs than undermotivated instructors (t = –4.098, p<0.001). Clinical instructors who encounter the problems when teaching students had higher learning needs than instructors who do not (t = 2.278, p<0.05). The results indicate that the LNATI has construct validity by the known-group method. In the 2nd survey, the instrument packets were distributed to 27 clinical instructors selected conveniently for examining stability. Test-retest reliability was 0.753 (p<0.001). The result of shows that the LNATI has stability.
Conclusion: The reliability and validity of LNATI was generally ascertained and the LNATI can meas-ure learning needs of clinical instructors to offer continuing education reflecting their learning needs.
This study clarifies aspects of organizational socialization among re-employed nurses, focusing on individuals who have been re-employed for one year. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 nurses who were re-employed within one year of leaving their previous workplace. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and descriptively.The results identified that aspects of organizational socialization for re-employed people can be divided into eleven categories: [bewilderment at the differ-ences in values and norms], [perplexity at the incongruity of being a new person with practical experi-ence], [a sense of isolation in the workplace], [initially accepting everything (the way things are done here)], [seeking a position within the workplace], [establishing relationships with staff], [finding acceptance through compromise], [understanding one's role in the workplace], [gaining a real sense of membership in the organization], [being supportive in keeping with their practical experience], and [currently choosing to continue working (here)]. These results suggest the importance of support and provision thereof while internalizing new values and norms during the first year of working after re-employment.
This study describes "the situations where novice nurses felt they could not be sufficiently assertive in the workplace. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 102 novice nurses. After explain-ing assertiveness in the questionnaire, participants were asked about situations and reasons where they have felt "I wanted to be assertive in the workplace but could not in the past year". A content analysis based on Krippendorff's method was conducted. There were 81 valid responses from respondents with an average age of 23.7 years. The reported situations yielded nine categories: (1) cannot decline tasks assigned; (2) cannot say I'm confused by unstructured instructions; (3) cannot argue with seniors scold-ing or pointing out dissatisfaction with my work; (4) cannot comment on the unacceptable behavior of seniors; (5) cannot argue against the unacceptable behavior of seniors toward me and other novice nurses; (6) cannot express dissatisfaction with the work; (7) cannot argue about false accusations of errors made by seniors; (8) cannot decline private requests; and (9) others. The reasons for the inability to be assertive yielded the following five categories: (1) considered human relationships important; (2) being instructed; (3) wanted to avoid trouble; (4) feel in debt to seniors; (5) avoid telling something that I could not do; (6) fear of seniors stopping giving advice; (7) don't want seniors to think duties are being neglected; (8) exhausted in an unfamiliar environment; (9) have responsibility for doing what was involved; and (10) felt fear. The responses showed that there were situations where novice nurses were unable to assert their positions with senior nurses in situations at work.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between implementation of nursing intern-ship and recruitment. A questionnaire survey was conducted of 348 nurse administrators who work at hospitals in Kanagawa prefecture. The questionnaire covered the following: personal attributes, intern-ship implementation (14 items), environmental factors (12 items). 183 responses were valid (52.6%).
1. Among the hospitals funded by the national government and publicly funded hospitals, the rate of internship implementation was higher in hospitals with more beds and higher staffing levels.
2. In the internship-implementation group, the ratio of nurses recruited after doing a nursing internship in a hospital to the total number of nurses recruited there throughout the year was related to the fol-lowing factors: whether the departments accepting the intern nurses in the hospital understand the implementation situation; whether it is clarified that the internship is different from a hospital visit; whether the method for collecting the intern nurses is discussed; whether the cost of accommodation is covered for the intern nurses; and whether the hospital continuously strives to increase the num-ber of nurses who will apply for the internship.
3. The rate of success in recruiting nurses was higher in the internship group than in the non-internship group.
When the internship-implementation group was compared with the internship-non-implementation group, there were differences in attributes of the hospital, the environments and conditions for imple-menting the nursing internship, and the success rate in recruiting nurses. Implementation of internship and improvement in the hospital environments are related to each other, which may affect the success rate in recruiting nurses.
The purpose of this study is to develop a "Recognition Behavior from Head Nurse" scale based on the "List of Recognition Behavior from Head Nurse Items (Hagimoto, 2009)" and verify its reliability and validity. The study subjects were 606 nurses excluding managers who have the title of head nurse or higher working. Possible item reduction and construct validity were examined by means of factor analysis and others means, criterion-related validity was reviewed based on the correlation coefficient with the "Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire" and the "Affective Commitment", which is a sub-scale of the "Organizational Commitment Scale", and reliability was evaluated based on a Cronbach's alpha test, etc. As a result, the scale has been refined from 32 to 22 items. In the aspect of reliability, the Cronbach's alpha level was 0.96 for the entire scale, and 0.85 to 0.92 (p<.001) for each factor, demon-strating a high internal consistency. As for the validity, the correlation with the "Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire" was r = 0.51 (p<.001), and the "Affective Commitment" was r = 0.31 (p<.001). Thus, Only the former of the criterion-related validity has been supported. The factor analysis has extracted the same four factors stated in the "List of Recognition Behavior from Head Nurse Items (Hagimoto, 2009)", namely "Close Communication", "Supportive Consultation/Advice", "Comfortable Attention", and "Positive Performance Evaluation". As the cumulative contribution ratio of the 22 items was 69.3%, the construct validity has been confirmed.
Job satisfaction and organizational commitment of nurses can be heightened when nursing supervi-sors use the scale as a reference in implementing the recognition behavior.