【Objective】: To clarify the impact of the empathy and social skills of nurses on their emotional labour.
【Method】: The target group consisted of 720 nurses who had worked in an acute care hospital for up to seven years. The measurement scales used were the Japanese edition of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the shortened version of the Social Skill Scale for Nursing (SSSN), and the Emotional Labour Inventory for Nurses (ELIN). Of the 323 nurses who participated in the study, 307 returned valid responses.
【Results】: The results of factor analysis showed four factors for IRI: [personal distress], [perspective taking], [fantasy], and [empathic concern]; two factors for ELIN: [exploration and expression of appro-priate emotion], [surface adjustment/deep adjustment]; and three factors for SSSN: [skills for expres- sive patients], [touching], and [skills for data collection and provision]. Among the various forms of empathy studied, [personal distress] influenced [skills for expressive patients], [perspective taking] influenced [skills for expressive patients] and [exploration and expression of appropriate emotion], and [skills for data collection] incited [exploration and expression of appropriate emotion] and [surface adjustment/deep adjustment].
【Conclusions】: [Perspective taking] and [personal distress] influenced [skills for expressive patients], suggesting that the empathy of nurses is a necessary factor in paying attention to and calming patients. Moreover, increase in social skills may be connected to expression of appropriate emotions.
The purpose of this study was to examine the types of supervisory support that are effective for the development of nurse managers. The study was designed as a qualitative inductive study. Subjects com-prised 10 nurse managers working at six acute hospitals and one clinic with 19 beds in the Greater Tokyo Area. All subjects were evaluated as good nurse managers by the directors of their nursing departments. Data were obtained using individual semi-structured interviews. Based on qualitative analysis, supervisory support was categorized into the following three categories: 1) support to help nurse managers identify a challenge; 2) support to help nurse managers take on a challenge; 3) support to help nurse managers develop an effective solution. We believe that these types of supervisory sup-port are in accordance with the methods of instructors skilled at teaching new staff members. Supervi-sory support should value the independence and autonomy of nurse managers and correlate with Kolb's cycle of experiential learning. However, opportunities for dialogue with higher ranking staff members were rarely reported.