The objective of this paper is to shed light on the state of gender equality in Norway
and Japan through tracing their changing childcare policies. In both countries, women’s
rights have been gradually extended even as the role of the mother has been strongly
emphasised. Although late to introduce pertinent public childcare services, the
socialisation of childcare has nevertheless come to be recognised as important in both. In Norway, this process of recognition took place in the wake of welfare state expansion in the 1960s that led to a labour shortage. In Japan, the low birth rate crisis of the 1990s served as a key starting point. The two cases differ in one important respect: whereas in Norway it became rational, from the standpoint of families and companies who were facing immediate pressures, to urgently create new public nursery services, the occurrence of low birth rates has led to no such immediate pressures in Japan. There, responses to demographic ageing have been prioritised over childcare to the extent that, even now, families are required to wait for an extended period of time to secure nursery places for their young children (known, in Japanese, as the taiki jidou mondai).
Basic income (BI) is an idea for social protection where certain amount of money is provided in universal and non-discriminatory ways. While Finland started BI experiment in January 2017, the scale, content and impact have been overestimated. It is in this context that this paper analyzes historical, political and economic conditions of this BI experiment and examines the limitations and possibilities of BI for the renewal of Finnish welfare state. Our argument is as follows: (1) BI can be seen as quite a natural form of social protection for the Finnish universalist tradition, which means that BI is not a radical means for the Finnish society. (2) Although BI has gained strong support from both short-term and long-term views, the former finally dominated. (3) While BI has limitations as a means for welfare state renewal, it can be potentially an initiator for serious discussion.
The goal of Swedish labour market policy is to give the opportunity for earning their bread and butter to all persons in the society. Persons with disabilities are obviously included in this “all persons”. In other words, the aim of the Swedish labour market programmes for the disabled is to provide persons with disabilities a greater chance of participating in society. In Sweden, there is no employment quota system for person with disabilities. However, the employment rate of person with disabilities in Sweden is higher than the employment rate of disabled people in OECD countries where employment quota systems for the disabled are introduced. The purpose of the paper is to investigate why the Swedish employment rate of person with disabilities is not low
without employment quota systems for the disabled. The most contributing factor for the high level of labour participation rate and employment rate of the disabled in Sweden is the principle of equal opportunity for all persons in society. In terms of
disability, principles such as “anti-discrimination”, “normalisation”, and “inclusion”
contribute to realise the high employment rate and the high labour market participation
rate for persons with disabilities in Sweden.
This paper examines the role “the Stockholm school” played in the emergence of new economic theory and policy in Britain and Sweden in the 1930s. Although many studies on the history of economic thought have discussed which of the Stockholm school and J. M. Keynes preceded the other theoretically, this paper examines the same theme from the viewpoint of interpersonal relationships both within and between these two countries. The Stockholm school was established after a confrontation between generations in the Political Economy Club in the latter half of the 1920s, and became recognized as a school of thought with policy recommendations to the
Committee on Unemployment in the first half of the 1930s. While its formation was partly inspired by an article published by Keynes in 1926, ultimately this Swedish school would in turn go on to have a significant influence on the“ Keynesian revolution” in Britain.
76 municipalities have been researched by interview to analyze the reconstruction of
inclusive education system after the local government reform 2007 in Denmark. The following contents characterized by similarity: 1) municipalities reconsider the system after the enhancement of inclusive education, 2) each municipality has an original strategy to improve the quality of education at school, 3) the task and function at PPR (Educational and Psychological Support) have changed after reform 2007. Svenborg municipality has built the circular network firmly and solidly. Sorø municipality has made an effort to change the mindset of all PPR staffs to reconsider the inclusive education system after municipal merger 2007. The field research to smaller
municipalities or municipalities with few resources will contribute to consider in a comprehensive way.
In this study, we analyzed the child health team in Sweden. We focused on small-scale Tomelilla municipality, and conducted interviews and reviewed related documents. In Swedish school, the child health team is required to handle with various problems of children such as bullying and mental instability. However, the size of each school is small, and it is difficult to set up the child health team in Tomelilla municipality. For this reason, the Central Children's Health Team was established as municipality organization. Support was provided at each school by the visiting consultation of the teachers and staffs employed by the municipality. Specifically, the municipality hires necessary specialists such as psychologists and school social workers, and they are
assigned to the school. The municipality also shares the application for support, analysis and intervention methods. And, with regard to serious problems, they have constructed a support system for children from various fields by collaborating with the medical care, welfare department, and the police and so on.