Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon
Online ISSN : 2432-3853
ISSN-L : 2432-3853
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Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
Review Article
  • Akira Tsunoda
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 335-339
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Electric bidet toilets are widely used in Japan and are sanitary devices, that are integral to daily life. Approximately, half of the population washed the anus before or after defecation. Cleaning the anus after defecation using the bidets contributes to hand hygiene and local comfort, and it may be effective against constipation. However, excessive bidet use potentially causes anal pruritus and anal incontinence (AI). Physicians are advised to instruct patients with anal pruritus to avoid excessive cleaning of the anus and those with AI to discontinue bidet use. For the estimation of the inherent severity of AI, physicians should instruct a bidet user with AI to discontinue bidet use and assess the severity of AI later. Additionally, the nozzle surface and splay water of bidet toilets may be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, rendering them a potential vehicle for cross-infection. In the hospital setting, compromised patients must be cautious regarding the shared use of bidet toilets to prevent infection by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Specifically, they should be provided with bidet toilets exclusive for them or may need to be instructed to not use a bidet.

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Original Research Article
  • Takuji Kawamura, Kana Amamiya, Naonori Inoue, Naokuni Sakiyama, Yusuke ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 340-345
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: There are patients who do not undergo colonoscopy even if the fecal immunochemistry test (FIT) results are positive and even with repeated positive test results the following year. We aimed to investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in examinees with positive FIT results in our annual screening program.

    Methods: We analyzed patients who underwent initial colonoscopy from April 2010 to March 2017 because of positive FIT results using an endoscopy database in our hospital. We investigated the difference in the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia as a surrogate marker of CRC between those who had an initial positive test and those who had repeated positive tests.

    Results: A total of 748 patients were included in this analysis. The advanced neoplasia detection rates were 7.6% (50/656) and 18.5% (17/92) for the initial and repeated positive test groups, respectively. Subgroup analysis of those with repeated positive tests revealed that the detection rates in examinees with positive tests 1-2 and >2 years ago were 16.7% (6/36) and 19.6% (11/56), respectively. The odds ratios for advanced neoplasia detection in patients with positive tests 1-2 and >2 years ago compared with those in the initial positive test group were 2.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-7.10) and 3.09 (95% CI, 1.47-6.48), respectively.

    Conclusions: The risk of CRC appears more than doubled in patients with a repeated positive FIT result. Prompt colonoscopy is recommended for FIT-positive cases.

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  • Ryuichi Oshima, Yukihito Kokuba, Tsukasa Shimamura, Kenta Katsumata, Y ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 346-354
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: During laparoscopic right hemicolectomy, many surgeons make a small incision near the umbilicus after the routine intraperitoneal operation. In this study, we created a precursory small epigastric incision at the center of a line connecting the xiphoid process and umbilicus (the M point, an empirically determined position) at the start of surgery prior to laparoscopic manipulation. This study aimed to determine whether the small incision at the center of the M point was a suitable position through which the right hemicolon is extracted.

    Methods: The subjects included 148 patients who underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy at our hospital between January 2013 and December 2019. We measured the distance between the M point and the gastrocolic trunk (GCT) root at the base of the transverse mesocolon and the middle colic artery (MCA) root on preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography images.

    Results: We found that the GCT and MCA roots are located within a radius of 1.5 cm from the M point, suggesting that the base of the transverse mesentery was located almost directly below the M point. Comparisons based on sex differences and body mass index (BMI) also revealed that the transverse mesocolon root is closer to the M point in men and overweight patients.

    Conclusions: From these results, the placement of a precursory small epigastric midline incision not only allows for a safe insertion of the first laparoscopic port in a short period of time but also facilitates safe transection and anastomosis due to the proximity of the M point to the transverse mesocolon root.

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  • Harunobu Sato, Kenjiro Kotake, Kotaro Maeda, Hirotoshi Kobayashi, Hiro ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 355-365
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore the risk factors associated with cancer cell exfoliation in Stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Methods: This multicenter, prospective, observational study targeted 1,698 patients with cStage II and III CRC who underwent R0 resection between 2013 and 2017. Clinicopathological variables were analyzed for correlations with positive peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC).

    Results: The positive PLC rate was 2.7% (46/1,694 cases) at laparotomy and 1.6% (25/1,590 cases) after tumor resection. Logistic regression analyses identified that undifferentiated histologies diagnosed by preoperative biopsy specimen, cT4, and pN+ were independent factors that affected the positive PLC at laparotomy. The positive PLC rate at laparotomy was 4.5% (33/736 cases) among the patients with undifferentiated histology and/or cT4. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the presence of ascites and undifferentiated histology by biopsy independently affected positive PLC after tumor resection.

    Conclusions: The undifferentiated histology and/or T4 indicated by preoperative diagnosis were identified as factors affecting PLC at laparotomy. Furthermore, ascites and preoperative histological type were identified as factors affecting positive PLC after tumor resection. As factors affecting positive PLC, these preoperative findings were found to be equivalent to pathological findings.

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  • Ryuichiro Sato, Masaya Oikawa, Tetsuya Kakita, Takaho Okada, Tomoya Ab ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 366-375
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: It has been increasingly recognized that the progression of cancer is dependent not only on the tumor characteristics but also on the nutritious and inflammatory condition of the host. We investigated the relationship between the globulin-to-albumin ratio (GAR) and long-term outcomes in obstructive colorectal cancer (OCRC) patients who were inserted self-expandable metallic stent as a bridge to curative surgery.

    Methods: A total of 75 pathological stage II and III OCRC patients between 2013 and 2020 were retrospectively evaluated. The associations of the preoperative GAR with clinicopathological factors and patient survival were examined.

    Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the optimal cutoff value was 0.88. The GAR ≥ 0.88 status was significantly associated with the absence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.011), longer postoperative hospital stay (17 days vs 15 days, P = 0.042), and not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.011). Relapse-free survival and cancer-specific survival were significantly shorter in the GAR ≥ 0.88 group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.023, respectively). Multivariate analyses revealed that the GAR ≥ 0.88 was independently associated with relapse-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-13.14, P = 0.015) ]. Moreover, CA19-9 ≥ 37 (HR = 6.56, 95% CI 2.12-20.27, p = 0.001) and not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 4.41, 95% CI 1.28-15.26, p = 0.019) were independent poor prognostic factors for relapse-free survival.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the GAR was a significant prognostic factor for OCRC patients.

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  • Akira Tsunoda, Tomoko Takahashi, Satoshi Matsuda, Hiroshi Kusanagi
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 376-385
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate factors that contribute to the recurrence of external rectal prolapse (ERP) following laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR).

    Methods: All patients who underwent LVR using synthetic meshes between 2011 and 2018 were prospectively included. A standard questionnaire including the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) and Constipation Scoring System (CSS) was administered preoperatively and postoperatively. Defecography was performed 6 months postoperatively. Univariate and backward stepwise multivariate Cox analysis was performed to determine the prognostic factors of recurrence.

    Results: In total, 132 patients with a median follow-up of 46 months were included. The overall recurrence rate was 6.8% (n = 9), as confirmed by defecography at 6 months in six of the patients. None of the patients developed mesh erosion. FISI and CSS scores were significantly reduced at 3 months and remained significantly reduced for 3 years. Multivariate analyses revealed that the predictors of recurrence included male sex (hazards ratio, 11.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-43.0) and age >80 years (hazards ratio, 10.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-86.3). Eight patients with recurrence underwent surgery via Delorme's procedure (n = 7) and posterior rectopexy (n = 1). Two patients with new-onset rectoanal intussusception and one with uncorrected sigmoidocoele underwent repeat LVR.

    Conclusions: LVR is effective in treating ERP with low morbidity and low recurrence. Male patients and patients older than 80 years are at increased risk of recurrence. Hence, the LVR technique should be modified or coupled with other perineal procedures when treating ERP, especially in male patients.

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  • Kotaro Maeda, Yoshikazu Koide, Hidetoshi Katsuno, Tsunekazu Hanai, Koj ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 386-394
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the actual state of anal incontinence (AI), fecal incontinence (FI), and the associated factors in Japanese medical personnel.

    Methods: A questionnaire was completed by Japanese medical personnel after listening to lectures on AI. AI was defined as involuntary loss of feces or flatus.

    Results: A total of 463 persons (mean age, 35.6 years; range, 20-91; male/female/no answer, 132/324/7) participated in the questionnaire. AI occurred in 34.4% of 450 participants (flatus/liquid stool/solid stool: 30.4%/3.6%/0.4%). AI was significantly more prevalent in females (male/female: 15.5%/42.7%, p < 0.001). AI and FI occurred significantly more prevalent in participants aged ≥40 years (p < 0.024). AI was significantly associated with childbirth, frequency of childbirth (more than three times), vaginal delivery, urinary incontinence, the style of urination/defecation, and a history of gynecologic surgery and systemic diseases (p < 0.05). Female gender and age as well as urinary incontinence and inability to defecate separately in female and previous colorectal disease and/or surgery in male were risk factors of AI by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). FI was correlated with urinary incontinence.

    Conclusions: AI and FI occurred in 34.4% and 4.0% of Japanese medical personnel, respectively. Gas incontinence was common in every age group. AI was associated with female gender, higher age group, urinary incontinence, the style of urination and defecation in female, and previous colorectal disease and/or surgery in male. FI was associated with urinary incontinence.

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  • Tadashi Yoshida, Shigenori Homma, Nobuki Ichikawa, Hiroaki Iijima, Aki ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 395-404
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of our new preoperative enteral nutrition protocol using Elental® without mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) before laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) in patients with advanced stenotic rectal cancer.

    Methods: Among 74 patients with advanced rectal cancer (clinical stages T3 and T4) scheduled to undergo LAR, 42 patients with stenotic rectal cancer were administered Elental® (900 kcal/day) without MBP before LAR (group S). Thirty-two patients without stenosis (group NS) did not receive preoperative nutritional support but underwent MBP.

    Results: Group S patients were maintained in a fasting state and received an elemental diet approximately 10 days preoperatively without severe adverse effects. The incidence of postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥ grade 2) was significantly lower in group S than that in group NS (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 6.046, P = 0.008). Logistic regression analysis revealed that group NS exhibited higher risks of developing postoperative complications than those exhibited by group S (OR: 4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-17.28, P = 0.018). Among preoperative characteristics, the clinical tumor stage indicated a significant intergroup difference. Thus, the clinical stage was selected as a covariate and adjusted in the logistic regression model to calculate a covariate-adjusted OR. Group NS exhibited a higher incidence of postoperative complications than group S (adjusted OR: 6.05, 95% CI: 1.58-28.35, P = 0.008).

    Conclusions: Administration of an elemental diet using Elental® without MBP before LAR is a feasible strategy in patients with advanced stenotic rectal cancer. Application of this research may encourage use of Elental® in the clinical setting.

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  • Yuki Horio, Motoi Uchino, Kazutoshi Hori, Kurando Kusunoki, Tomohiro M ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 405-413
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: Few reports are available on post-colectomy enteritis (PCE) with ulcerative colitis (UC), which can be severe and sometimes fatal. The clinical characteristics are unclear, and treatment and diagnosis protocols have not been established. We aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic outcomes of PCE in this study.

    Methods: Patients with UC who underwent colectomy between April 2010 and December 2019 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed patients who developed PCE and excluded patients with other forms of enteritis.

    Results: We performed 829 colectomies because of a preoperative diagnosis of UC. Eleven and four patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease and indeterminate colitis after surgery, respectively; 22 patients developed enteritis in the perioperative period. We excluded six patients with backwash ileitis, five with prepouch ileitis, three with infectious enteritis, and one with ischemic enteritis. In total, 7/814 (0.8%) patients developed PCE. All patients with PCE had pancolitis. PCE was observed a median of 33 (12-248) days after surgery. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosa. The extent of disease included various types such as pan-enteritis with diffuse type, pan-enteritis and mild inflammation in the middle ileum, and only ileitis. Gastroduodenitis-associated UC developed in 6/7 cases. All patients improved with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists even if TNFα antagonists had not been effective for colitis.

    Conclusions: PCE was rare. The mucosal endoscopic findings were similar to those of UC, and the extent of disease varied. TNFα antagonist administration for PCE was effective.

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Trial Protocol
  • Hiromichi Sonoda, Takeshi Yamada, Keiji Hirata, Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, D ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 414-418
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Background: Some studies have reported that adhesion prevention barriers (APBs) reduce adhesion after abdominal surgery; however, evidence showing that APBs reduce the incidence of postoperative small bowel obstruction (SBO), one of the most serious complications after abdominal surgery, is little. One concern is that APBs are usually applied only under the midline incision, although adhesion can occur at any place in the peritoneum where an incision is made during surgery. INTERCEED® is an APB that reportedly prevents postoperative SBO after surgery. This study aims to assess the clinical utility of INTERCEED® for the prevention of SBO after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery and determine whether the application site of INTERCEED® affects the incidence of SBO.

    Methods/Design: This study is a prospective, multicenter, observational study conducted in Japan. The primary end point is the incidence of postoperative SBO 2 years after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. The secondary end points include whether the site of the application of INTERCEED® affects the incidence of SBO. Each surgeon selects one of the following three procedures: 1) INTERCEED® is placed only under the midline incision; 2) INTERCEED® is placed at the site of bowel mobilization and/or lymph node dissection, but not under the midline incision; and 3) INTERCEED® is placed at both sites.

    Discussion: This is the first study to assess whether the placement of APBs affects the incidence of SBO. The study results may lead to a subsequent randomized study.

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Clinical Research
  • Yoshiko Goto, Motoi Uchino, Yuki Horio, Kurando Kusunoki, Tomohiro Min ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 419-425
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: The appropriate and recommended delivery mode after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been sufficiently evaluated. This study was designed to compare the delivery outcomes associated with cesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) after IPAA.

    Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of female patients who underwent IPAA for UC between July 1987 and May 2018. Additionally, we reviewed clinical data and collected information regarding pouch function and postpartum complications.

    Results: In total, 45 patients had 68 deliveries, including 64 CS deliveries and four VDs. Fecal incontinence worsened in seven patients, including six CS patients and one VD patient. The Wexner scores of these patients before and after delivery were 5.4 ± 0.4 and 14.8 ± 1.0, respectively (p = 0.005). Four patients in the CS group and one in the VD group (p = 0.32) had increased stool frequency. Bowel obstructions developed during 11/64 (17.2%) deliveries, and one patient required surgical intervention. One patient with four VDs (three before IPAA and one after IPAA) developed vaginal fistula 5 months after the final VD. Information on episiotomies could not be obtained.

    Conclusions: Pouch function can decline even after CS. Notably, bowel obstruction can develop after CS. However, we cannot recommend a particular delivery method after IPAA. Further analyses to elucidate the relationship between CS and postoperative complications or vaginal fistula and episiotomy in VDs should be conducted.

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  • Minako Sako, Naoki Yoshimura, Akira Sonoda, Soh Okano, Miki Ueda, Maki ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 426-432
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Objectives: Knowledge gaps exist in the use of biologics for pregnant patients with Crohn's disease (CD), especially the usage of ustekinumab (UST) and infliximab (IFX) infusion during the late gestation period. In this case series, we investigated perinatal and neonatal outcomes and pharmacokinetics of these biologics in pregnant CD patients.

    Methods: Pregnant CD patients under treatment with IFX or UST during January 2017 to December 2019 were monitored. Growth and development of their babies were followed up to six months. Drug concentrations were measured in maternal peripheral and cord blood at delivery and infants' blood at six months of age.

    Results: Four cases were kept IFX treatment until late gestation (median last dose: 31.2 weeks). One case received UST until 23 weeks of gestation. All cases were in clinical remission but moderately undernourished. Babies were delivered by cesarean section at full term without any complications or congenital abnormalities. No growth or developmental defects and no susceptibility to infections were observed by six months. However, two babies whose mothers received IFX after 30 weeks of gestation were detected IFX in their blood at six months of age (0.94 and 0.24 pg/ml). Concentrations of UST in maternal and cord blood were 267.7 and 756.5 ng/ml, respectively. UST was not detected in the infant at six months of age.

    Conclusions: Administration of UST or IFX to pregnant patients with CD is safe, particularly IFX to be given in the late gestation period. Understanding of the pharmacokinetics of biologics in maternal-infant interactions may improve the management of pregnant CD patients.

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Case Report
  • Hiroki Matsui, Tadashi Yoshida, Shigenori Homma, Nobuki Ichikawa, Shin ...
    2021 Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 433-438
    Published: October 28, 2021
    Released: October 28, 2021

    Primary enteroliths associated with Crohn's disease have been considered to be rare and are most likely caused by severe ileal stenosis. Herein, we report the case of a primary enterolith possibly caused by mild jejunal stenosis in a Crohn's disease patient who received oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). A 62-year-old woman with a 6-year history of Crohn's disease, currently in clinical remission, was on UDCA prescription for liver dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and double-balloon endoscopy, which were performed to examine epigastric pain, revealed mild jejunal stenosis and an enterolith on the oral side. Since it was difficult to remove or crush the enterolith endoscopically, we decided to remove it surgically with the stenotic jejunum. Component analysis revealed that more than 98% of the enterolith was composed of UDCA; subsequently, oral administration of UDCA was discontinued. This case demonstrated that primary enterolith might develop in Crohn's disease patients with mild intestinal stenosis, and oral administration of UDCA can trigger an enterolith in such patients. Therefore, routine follow-up imaging is necessary for early detection. Oral UDCA should be administered with caution for Crohn's disease patients with stenosis of the proximal small intestine.

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