Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the most common types of inflammatory bowel disease, are idiopathic, intractable disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the intestine. In recent years, studies elucidating the clinical characteristics of these diseases and basic researches have suggested that the diseases are induced by the immunological abnormalities through the involvement of environmental factors with their predisposition. In Japan, significant progress of basic and epidemiological researches has been developed for these diseases and the clinical guidelines have been established. However, no fundamental treatment for these diseases has been established yet. The current number of patients in Japan continues to increase, with at least 180,000 patients suffering from ulcerative colitis and 40,000 suffering from Crohn's disease. Thus, further studies are required to understand these diseases and improve medical treatments.
The number of patients undergoing robotic surgery for rectal cancer has rapidly increased in Japan, since the government approved the procedure for national insurance coverage in April 2018. Robotic surgery has the potential to overcome some limitations of laparoscopic surgery, especially in the narrow pelvis, providing a three-dimensional view, articulated instruments, and a stable camera platform. Although meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the superiority of robotic surgery over laparoscopic surgery with respect to the short-term clinical outcomes, the published findings suggest that robotic surgery may be potentially beneficial for patients who are obese, male, or patients undergoing sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. The safety and feasibility of robotic surgery for lateral lymph node dissection, the standard procedure for locally advanced lower rectal cancer in Japan, have been demonstrated in some retrospective studies. However, additional prospective, randomized trials are required to determine the actual benefits of robotic surgery to ameliorate the urogenital and oncological outcomes. The cost of this approach is a long-standing principal concern. A literature search showed that the cost of robotic surgery for rectal cancer was 1.3-2.5 times higher per patient than that for the laparoscopic approach. We herein describe our surgical technique using a da Vinci Surgical System (S/Si/Xi) with 10 years of experience in performing robotic surgery. We also review current evidence regarding short-term clinical and long-term oncological outcomes, lateral lymph node dissection, and the cost of the procedure.
Inappropriate stoma site, improper management of stoma, and stoma complications lead to diminished quality of life of ostomates. Healthcare professionals involved in stoma creation and/or care should have the fundamental and updated knowledge of the management of stomas and their complications. This review article consists of the following major sections: principles of perioperative patient management, early complications, and late complications. In the "principles of perioperative patient management" section, the current concepts and trends in preoperative education, stoma site marking, postoperative education, and patient educational resources are discussed. In the "early complications" section, we have focused on the etiology and current management of ischemia/necrosis, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, mucocutaneous separation, and retraction. In the "late complications" section, we have focused on the etiology and current management of parastomal hernia, stoma prolapse, parastomal varices, and pyoderma gangrenosum. Pre- and postoperative patient education facilitates the patient's independence in stoma care and resumption of normal activities. Healthcare providers should have basic skills and updated knowledge on the management of stomas and complications of stomas, to act as the first crisis manager for ostomates.
Objectives: The pre-operative diagnostic value of detecting lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) metastasis with magnetic resonance imaging, multidirectory computed tomography, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography was investigated in lower rectal cancer patients.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated, using the three different modalities, the metastatic status of LPLNs in four regions, including both the internal iliac and the obturator, in 46 patients affected by lower rectal cancer patients who underwent LPLN dissection. The size inclusion criterion for LPLN metastasis was set at 6 mm in the short axis diameter. Histological examination was performed for determining the false positive and negative rate of LPLNs metastasis detection.
Results: Among 184 LPLNs regions, 17 (9%) were positive for metastasis. The region-based sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate did not differ among the three tested diagnostic modalities. Moreover, a significant increase in these rates could not be observed when the modalities were combined. Of 184 regions, 8 (4.4%) were false negative, whereas 2 (1.1%) were false positive. The histological pattern of metastatic regions did not differ in 8 false negative LPLNs.
Conclusions: Each modality had a similar detection power for LPLNs metastasis, with a cut-off value at 6 mm in the short axis diameter. However, the sensitivity of all the modalities was slightly low, along with the number of false negative LPLNs. Further reduction of the false negative rate with these modalities may be difficult because of an inherent limitation of current imaging technologies to accurately detect lymph node metastases.
A 65-year-old man was followed up after undergoing Hartmann's operation for the treatment of obstructive colon cancer 1 year earlier. He presented with bloody stool and underwent examination, including lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, and he was diagnosed with rectal cancer. Since he had a history of multiple abdominal surgeries, including Hartmann's operation, severe pelvic adhesions were expected. Thus, in consideration of surgical safety and curability, transanal total mesorectal excision (Ta-TME) was performed. The duration of the surgery was 3 h, and there was minimal blood loss. Histopathological findings did not reveal remnants of cancer in the resected margin, and the patient was discharged on hospital day 7. Rectal cancer has a higher rate of local recurrence than colon cancer. To prevent local recurrence, ensuring a rectal circumferential resection margin (CRM) with TME is essential, which is, however, challenging in obese patients and in those with giant tumors, contracted pelvis, prostatic hypertrophy, etc., since these conditions complicate pelvic surgery. The same is true for patients with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries. It is expected that these problems can be resolved by Ta-TME. In the present case, Ta-TME was extremely useful in rectal cancer surgery for a patient with a history of multiple abdominal surgeries, including Hartmann's operation.