Heavy-ion radiotherapy (RT) is a kind of particle RT, and carbon-ion beam constitutes the primary delivery method of heavy-ion RT. Unlike the conventional photon modalities, particle RT, in particular carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT), offers unique physical and biological advantages. Particle therapy allows for substantial dose delivery to tumors with minimal surrounding tissue damage. In addition, CIRT in particular possesses biological advantages such as inducing increased double-strand breaks in DNA structures, causing irreversible cell damage independently of cell cycle or oxygenation, more so than proton or photon. It can be expected that CIRT is effective on radioresistant cancers such as colorectal cancers (CRCs). We introduced the results of CIRT for local recurrent rectal cancer, lung metastasis, liver metastasis, and lymph node metastasis.
Currently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a well-established and common treatment for intramucosal colorectal cancer in Japan. However, colorectal ESD is technically more difficult to perform than esophageal and gastric ESD, and some lesions, such as fibrotic lesions, are difficult to dissect by endoscopy. Several techniques, such as the pocket-creation method and laparoscopically assisted endoscopic polypectomy, have been utilized for challenging targets. In recent years, endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) using full-thickness resection devices have mainly been performed in Western countries. We have used laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery for colorectal tumors (LECS-CR) since 2011 for the challenging treatment of colorectal ESD. Improvements in ESD techniques have resulted in an increase in the literature on EFTR, and LECS-CR may be considered an effective endoscopic technique for colorectal ESD in the future.
Objectives: The standard strategy for advanced rectal cancer (RC) is preoperative short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) /chemoradiotherapy (CRT) plus total mesorectal excision (TME) in Western countries; however, the survival benefit of adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy remains unclear. There is accumulating evidence that either SCRT/CRT or lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPND) alone may not be sufficient for local control of advanced RC. We herein retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients who were treated by SCRT/CRT+TME+LPND, particularly focusing on the prognostic impact of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis (LPNM).
Methods: Patients diagnosed as having clinical Stage II and III lower RC who received SCRT/CRT+TME+LPND between 1999 and 2012 at our hospital were enrolled. Adverse events (AEs), surgery-related complications (SRC), and therapeutic effects were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Fifty cases (SCRT:25, CRT:25) were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), local recurrence (LR), AE, and SRC between the SCRT and CRT groups, although the pathological therapeutic effect was higher in the CRT group. The patients with LPNM showed significantly inferior 5-year OS and 5-year RFS than those without LPNM.
Conclusions: There were no significant differences in OS, RFS, or LR between SCRT and CRT, although CRT had a significantly greater histological therapeutic effect. The prognosis of the pathological LPNM-positive cases was significantly poorer than that of pathological LPNM-negative cases.
Objectives: To clarify the long-term outcomes of transvaginal anterior levatorplasty with posterior colporrhaphy for symptomatic rectocele with defecographic changes.
Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing transvaginal anterior levatorplasty with posterior colporrhaphy for symptomatic rectocele were prospectively registered and retrospectively reviewed using medical records. Symptoms, fecal incontinence, and defecographic findings were evaluated before and after surgery.
Results: Fifty-seven women (mean age, 68 years) were identified, and the median disease duration was 24 months. Symptoms of vaginal mass (n = 32) and difficult defecation (n = 21) disappeared (90.6% and 71.4%, respectively) or improved (6.3% and 28.6%, respectively) after surgery. However, the feeling of residual stool was unchanged in two of eight patients. Seventeen patients who performed digitation on defecation before surgery discontinued digitation after surgery. The proportion of patients who had fecal incontinence preoperatively (40.4%) decreased significantly after surgery (17.5%) during a median follow-up period of 47 months. Defecography revealed a disappearance or improvement of rectocele in all 18 patients examined. The average rectocele size decreased significantly in six improved patients (p = 0.0006, paired t-test).
Conclusions: Transvaginal anterior levatorplasty with posterior colporrhaphy for symptomatic rectocele was a useful option to improve symptoms and anatomical disorders in the long term, but it had limitations in improving defecatory symptoms.
Objectives: Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is the gold standard surgical procedure for patients with slow transit constipation (STC). This operation's outcomes are highly variable; however, predictors of postoperative outcomes after surgical treatment of intractable STC remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the usefulness of preoperative evaluation for intractable STC by computed tomography (CT) in predicting postoperative outcomes.
Methods: From January 2011 to December 2018, 22 patients with intractable STC underwent laparoscopic total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis at the Kashiwa Hospital, Jikei University. They were divided into two groups, eighteen patients in the colonic inertia type (CI) group, and four patients in the spastic constipation type (SC) group, by preoperative CT according to specific criteria.
Results: There were no significant differences in the mean age, gender, mean operation time, or mean intraoperative blood loss. The SC group's postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer than that of the CI group. Postoperative gastric outlet obstruction occurred in two patients (11%) who underwent distal partial gastrectomy with R-Y reconstruction after the surgery in the CI group but no patients in the SC group. Postoperative pelvic outlet obstruction occurred in all four patients who underwent ileostomy within a year after surgery in the SC group but no patients in the CI group.
Conclusions: The outcomes of total colectomy in the treatment of intractable STC are highly variable. Preoperative evaluation for intractable STC by CT seems to be a useful predictor of postoperative outcomes.
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics of colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) in elderly individuals.
Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted at a single tertiary center. A total of 519 patients (356 men and 163 women; mean age of 73.1 ± 12.5 years) with CDB and hospitalized between January 2004 and May 2019 were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups: the elderly (274 individuals aged ≥75 years; mean age, 82.1 ± 5.3 years) and non-elderly (245 individuals aged <75 years; mean age, 63.0 ± 10.3 years) groups. Primary outcomes were early and late rebleeding rates, and secondary outcomes were the risk factors for late rebleeding in elderly individuals. Rebleeding occurring within 30 days of hospitalization was defined as early rebleeding, whereas rebleeding occurring after 31 days was defined as late rebleeding.
Results: The early rebleeding rates were 30.6% and 33.1% (p = 0.557) in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively. The late rebleeding rates were 42.3% and 30.6% (p = 0.005) in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively. The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 63.6% in the elderly group and 75.6% in the non-elderly group (log-rank test: p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [odds ratio (OR), 3.55], chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.89), and presence of bilateral diverticula (OR, 1.83) as the independent risk factors for late rebleeding in elderly individuals.
Conclusions: Elderly individuals with CDB require careful follow-up even after discharge. Furthermore, it is important to consider discontinuing NSAIDs to prevent rebleeding.
Objectives: Many patients have endoscopic evidence of recurrent Crohn's disease (CD) 1 year after intestinal resection, and endoscopic lesions predict future clinical recurrence. The aim of this study was to describe some anastomotic lesions including changes in endoscopic features in CD patients and to discuss recurrence. We also compared anastomotic lesions in CD patients and in right-side colon cancer (rt-CC) patients.
Methods: We enrolled patients with CD and rt-CC who underwent surgical resection between 2008 and 2014. Eleven CD patients underwent postoperative endoscopy at least twice, with the first time being from 6 months to 1 year after surgery and the second time being from 2 to 3 years after surgery. Eighty-six patients with rt-CC underwent postoperative endoscopy after approximately one year.
Results: A total of 90.9% of CD patients had postoperative lesions around the anastomosis at the first postoperative ileocolonoscopy, which was markedly higher than that in rt-CC patients (3.5%, p<0.001). Many of these lesions in CD required enhanced treatment. However, linear superficial ulcers at the anastomotic line at the first ileocolonoscopy did not worsen with the same treatment (18.1%).
Conclusions: Postoperative anastomotic lesions were detected at a higher rate in CD cases than that in rt-CC cases. Many anastomotic lesions were recognized as recurrent disease and required enhanced treatment, whereas linear superficial ulcers did not require treatment changes. Therefore, linear superficial ulcers might not be recurrent disease. As this issue is related to recurrence, it should be further explored with the accumulation of more cases in a multicenter analysis.
Objectives: Molecular profiling of marker mutations has become an essential aspect in the treatment planning for colorectal cancer (CRC). Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations could be used as markers in CRC molecular profiling. However, the extremely low frequency of these mutations makes their confirmation in all patients inefficient. Thus, to determine whether ALK positivity could be indicated by morphological features, we have analyzed ALK positivity in CRC tissues with a signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) component.
Methods: We screened cases of patients who underwent CRC surgical resection at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of the Kanagawa Cancer Center between January 2015 and December 2019. The selected samples were then assessed immunohistochemically using an antibody against p80 ALK.
Results: In total, we were able to retrieve 29 cases of CRC with the SRCC component from the database; however, 5 cases were excluded owing to the absence of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections or the absence of the SRCC component when the tissues were observed. In the immunohistochemical analysis, two cases showed diffused positive immunoreactivity for ALK and were defined as ALK-positive CRC. Thus, the ALK positivity rate in CRC with SRCC was determined to be 8.3%.
Conclusions: This present study sheds light on the morphological features of ALK-positive CRC. Our findings could contribute to the effective screening and improvement of front-line therapy for CRC.
Objectives: The present study aimed to identify patients with locally advanced rectal cancer in whom preoperative radiotherapy (RT) can be omitted.
Methods: This study was a retrospective multi-institutional study for patients with pathological stage II and III rectal cancer who underwent surgery without preoperative therapy between January 2008 and December 2012. Clinicopathological factors were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses to clarify independent risk factors of local recurrence (LR).
Results: The 5-year cumulative local recurrence rate (LRR) of 815 patients was 11.2%. Independent predictive factors of LR were determined by a multivariate analysis to be a tumor location of <10 cm from the anal verge, a tumor diameter of ≥50 mm, undifferentiated histological type, and advanced T-N substage (T3N+ or T4Nany). In lower rectal cancer located <10 cm from the anal verge (n = 510), the 5-year cumulative LRR of patients without any remaining three factors was 4.4%, with one factor was 13.0%, with two factors was 22.2%, and with all three factors was 41.6%.
Conclusions: Preoperative RT may be omitted in patients with lower rectal cancer with no risk factors. However, in addition to the present risk factors, we need to further examine the extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) status and circumferential resection margin (CRM) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.
The trial was registered with UMIN Clinical Trails Registry, number 000006039.
Objectives: Anastomotic leakage is associated with severe morbidity, mortality, and functional defects. Its risk factors remain unclear. However, blood perfusion may be a potential major risk factor. It has been reported that the Agatston score is an index for blood flow perfusion evaluation. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical indicators associated with anastomotic leakage, including the Agatston score, in patients who underwent colorectal surgery.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 147 patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery with the double-staple technique anastomosis for colorectal cancer between April 2015 and March 2020. The primary outcome was the presence or absence of anastomotic leakage. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to identify pre- and intraoperative risk factors.
Results: Of the 147 patients analyzed, anastomotic leakage occurred in 12 (8.16%). Male gender, history of angina and myocardial infarction, preoperative white blood cell count, the Agatston score, extent of bleeding, operation time, and intraoperative fluid volume were significantly related to a higher incidence of anastomotic leakage in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the incidence of anastomotic leakage was high in patients with a high Agatston score.
Conclusions: The Agatston score can predict the incidence of anastomotic leakage in patients following colorectal surgery. Thus, perioperative measures to prevent anastomotic leakage are recommended when a high Agatston score is observed. A prospective trial is required to demonstrate, with a high level of evidence, that the Agatston score can be useful as a risk score for anastomotic leakage following colorectal surgery.
A 25-year-old male (Case 1) was waiting for a bone marrow transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome. Due to acute appendicitis, he was advised to undergo gastroenterological surgery. After blood transfusion, he underwent an emergency laparoscopic appendectomy, as no blood cell recovery was expected. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged. A 71-year-old female (Case 2) developed acute appendicitis during chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). At the time of onset, since her myelosuppression was expected to improve in approximately 1 week, a conservative treatment was administered. However, due to the progression of AML, the expected blood cell recovery did not occur. Therefore, laparoscopic appendectomy was performed 25 days after onset. She was discharged without postoperative adverse events. In cases of acute appendicitis in patients with hematologic disease accompanied by pancytopenia, it is important to establish a careful treatment plan considering the possibility of recovery from myelosuppression and the need to control an intraperitoneal infection in conjunction with a hematologist. Laparoscopic surgery, which is minimally invasive, was an effective surgical procedure.
Anorectal melanoma (AM) is a rare and aggressive malignancy. Two main types of surgical approach for AM are abdominoperineal resection (APR) and wide local excision (WLE). Nine patients with AM underwent surgical treatment between July 2005 and October 2017 at our institution. Two of the patients were diagnosed with localized stage, four with regional stage, and three with distant stage. Laparoscopic APR was performed in six patients with localized and regional stages, whereas palliative APR and/or WLE were performed in those with distant metastasis. Both patients with localized stage lived without relapse for 6.8 years after surgery. One of the patients with regional stage had no relapse during 3.6 years of follow-up. The other three patients had recurrence and died between 6 and 32 months after surgery. The median overall survival (OS) of the cohort was 14.8 months, and the 5- and 10-year OS were 33.3% and 16.7%, respectively. The tumor at the regional stage could be removed through WLE, but preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis is difficult in patients with AM. Further development of the diagnostic method is expected, and future tasks will be to establish the selection criteria to determine which surgical approach is optimal for this devastating disease.
Here, we report our experience with a 5-mm trocar site hernia (TSH) near a stoma. This is the first report describing the relationship between TSH and extraperitoneal colostomy. A 72-year-old man underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection with extraperitoneal sigmoid colostomy and partial hepatectomy for rectal cancer accompanied by synchronous liver metastasis (pT3N1aM1a Stage IVA Union for International Cancer Control [UICC] 8th edition). The surgical procedures were completely performed without morbidity. After 1 year, he presented to our hospital with sudden nausea. Computed tomography (CT) revealed small bowel obstruction due to a 5-mm TSH, 1 cm from the stoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic hernia repair. The incidence of a 5-mm TSH is low. However, an abdominal wall vulnerability caused by the extensive exfoliation of the retroperitoneum due to the construction of the colostomy was observed, and the extraperitoneal colostomy influenced the onset of the 5-mm TSH. When the port and hernia sites are located in close proximity to each other, even a 5-mm trocar site may increase the incidence of TSH.
The Deloyers procedure is performed after extended left colectomy, enabling the reach of the proximal colon to the rectum for anastomosis while preserving sufficient blood supply. We report a case of the Deloyers procedure performed safely under indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence guidance.
A 50-year-old man with obesity (body mass index, 35.7 kg/m2) and a history of diabetes underwent an extended left hemicolectomy and ultralow anterior resection of the rectum as radical resection for transverse and sigmoid colon cancers and a lower rectal neuroendocrine tumor. Reconstruction was performed by the Deloyers procedure. A necessary length of the transverse colon with reduced blood flow was additionally resected under ICG fluorescence guidance, and a transanal hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis was performed.
This is the first report in which the Deloyers procedure was performed successfully with the ICG fluorescence method. ICG fluorescence may be useful when combined with the Deloyers procedure.
Patients with acute colorectal obstruction due to malignancy in the right-sided colon are treated with primary resection and anastomosis. However, considering the generally poor status and prognosis, less-invasive, palliative treatment is desirable, particularly for unresectable malignancies. An ileostomy is useful, but the patient must manage the stoma, which worsens the quality of life.
We developed a palliative surgical procedure, termed the "Separation surgery of the right-sided colon," for treating an obstruction due to unresectable right-sided colon cancer. We identified and divided the ileum and the transverse colon and anastomosed the upper ileum to the lower transverse colon. Then, we created a mucous fistula with the loose ends of the lower ileum and the upper transverse colon.
We performed this procedure in five patients. Stoma pouches were unnecessary. No comorbidities were observed, including anastomotic leakage. The "Separation surgery of the right-sided colon" was useful as palliative surgery.