Aim: We assessed the relationship between the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults. Methods: We reviewed 1,561 patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus with hsCRP levels measured within the past year. Four cardiovascular risk groups were determined: low (<10%, 0-1 risk), moderate (<10%, >2 risk), high (10-20%) and very high (>20%) risk, according to the number of risk factors and the Framingham/NCEP ATP III risk score. The correlations between the hsCRP level and cardiovascular risk factors (age, smoking, hypertension, lipid profiles and familial history of premature coronary heart disease) were investigated. Results: The mean and median hsCRP (mg/L) levels were 1.32±9.69 and 0.29 (range: 0.01-7.48), respectively. Men had a higher median level of hsCRP than women (p<0.001). The levels of hs CRP significantly increased from the low to the very high risk group (0.15, 0.23, 0.27 and 0.47, respectively) and were significantly correlated with age, the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index (BMI), the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio, the LDL-C/total cholesterol (TC) ratio, the HDL-C/TC ratio, the HDL-C/triglyceride (TG) ratio and the TC/TG ratio. Neither smoking, the LDL-C level nor the TG level affected the hsCRP level. In a multivariate regression analysis, age, the HDL-C level, the LDL-C/TC ratio and BMI were found to be independently correlated with the hsCRP level. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the degree of cardiovascular risk and the hsCRP level in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Assessing the hsCRP levels may thus provide additive value in predicting cardiovascular risks.
Aim: The prognostic significance of the apolipoprotein B/A1 (ApoB/A1) ratio in statintreated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association of the ApoB/A1 ratio with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in these patients. Methods: We enrolled 62 consecutive statin-treated patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Their lipid profiles, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as a marker of oxidative stress, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), as a marker of vascular endothelial function, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as a marker of inflammation, were measured. Results: Our study population comprised 44 men and 18 women (mean age, 70.5±2.5 years). The ApoB/A1 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the d-ROMs test (p=0.004, r=0.36) and CRP level (p=0.02, r=0.30) and negatively correlated with the %FMD (p=0.005, r=−0.40). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most powerful predictive factor for the d-ROMs was the ApoB/A1 ratio (p=0.026). We therefore divided patients into two groups according to the cutoff point reported by the INTERHEART study: a low ApoB/A1 ratio (<0.641, n=26) and a high ApoB/A1 ratio (>0.641, n=36). The patients with a high ApoB/A1 ratio had higher levels of d-ROMs and CRP, and tended to have a lower %FMD. Conclusion: The ApoB/A1 ratio was associated with the d-ROMs, a marker of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, and could be useful as a residual atherosclerotic risk marker to help prevent CAD in statin-treated patients.
Aims: Inflammation has been postulated to modify the platelet response to aspirin treatment, thereby causing high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity (HRPR). Both high levels of inflammatory markers and HRPR have been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. We aimed to study the impact of inflammation on residual arachidonic acid (AA)-inducible platelet reactivity. Methods: In 288 patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, residual AA-inducible platelet reactivity was assessed using light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the VerifyNow assay, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and the Impact-R. The levels of urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (D-TXB2), serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined using immunoassays. Results: The IL-6 level was found to be an independent predictor of platelet reactivity as determined according to LTA and D-TXB2 using a multiple linear regression analysis. Accordingly, patients with supramedian IL-6 levels exhibited significantly higher platelet reactivity than patients with inframedian IL-6 levels when determined according to LTA and D-TXB2 (both p ≤0.02). High IL-6 levels were associated with a 3.6-fold (95%CI 2.1-6.4) increased risk of HRPR, as defined according to D-TXB2, and a 3.4-fold (95%CI 1.4-8.3) increased risk of HRPR, as defined according to MEA. The HsCRP level was found to be an independent predictor of platelet reactivity when determined according to LTA, D-TXB2, the Impact-R and TXB2 using a multiple linear regression analysis. High hsCRP levels were associated with a 3.6-fold (95%CI 1.3-10) increased risk of HRPR, as defined according to LTA, and a 2.5-fold (95%CI 1.3-4.6) increased risk of HRPR, as defined according to TXB2. Conclusions: Increased levels of inflammatory markers are independently associated with residual AA-inducible platelet reactivity in patients receiving dual antiplatelet treatment.
Aim: Arterial stiffness is an established cardiovascular risk marker and an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in various groups of patients, including renal transplant recipients. Recent studies have noted that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) acts as a local paracrine molecule that modulates endothelial permeability and regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) level and arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients. Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 66 renal transplant recipients. The cardio-ankle vascular index was calculated using the waveform device (CAVI-VaSera VS-1000). The serum NTpro-BNP levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A CAVI value of ≥9 was used to define a high level of arterial stiffness. Results: Thirty-two patients (48.5%) were classified into the high arterial stiffness group. Diabetes (p=0.030), smoking (p<0.001), duration of kidney transplantation (p=0.001), body weight (p=0.014), waist circumference (p=0.022), body mass index (p=0.001) and the fasting glucose (p=0.021) and serum NT-pro-BNP (p<0.001) levels were higher in the high arterial stiffness group than in the low arterial stiffness group. A multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the log-NT-pro-BNP level (β: 0.459, p<0.001) remained an independent predictor of the CAVI value in the renal transplant recipients. Conclusions: The serum fasting NT-pro-BNP level is associated with arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients.