Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Online ISSN : 1880-3873
Print ISSN : 1340-3478
ISSN-L : 1340-3478
Volume 24 , Issue 9
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Nusrat S Shommu, Tanvir C Turin
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 877-883
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: July 28, 2017

    Knowledge translation is an essential and emerging arena in healthcare research. It is the process of aiding the application of research knowledge into clinical practice or policymaking. Individuals at all levels of the health care system, including patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers, are affected by the gaps that exist between research evidence and practice; the process of knowledge translation plays a role in bridging these gaps and incorporating high-quality clinical research into decision-making. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) management is a crucial area of healthcare where information gaps are known to exist. Although Japan has one of the lowest risks and mortality rates from CVDs, an increasing trend of cardiovascular incidence and changes in the risk factor conditions have been observed in recent years. This article provides an overview of knowledge translation and its importance in the cardiovascular health of the Japanese population, and describes the key steps of a typical knowledge translation strategy.

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  • Hajime Abe, Hiroaki Semba, Norihiko Takeda
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 884-894
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: July 28, 2017

    The circulatory system distributes blood flow to each tissue and transports oxygen and nutrients. Peripheral circulation is required to maintain the physiological function in each tissue. Disturbance of circulation, therefore, decreases oxygen delivery, leading to tissue hypoxia which takes place in several cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension and heart failure. While tissue hypoxia can be induced because of cardiovascular disorders, hypoxia signaling itself has a potential to modulate tissue remodeling processes or the severity of the cardiovascular disorders. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α belongs to a group of transcription factors which mediate most of the cellular responses to hypoxia at a transcriptional level. We, and others, have reported that HIF-α signaling plays a critical role in the initiation or the regulation of inflammation. HIF-α signaling contributes to the tissue remodeling processes; thus it has a potential to become a therapeutic target. Elucidation of the molecular link, therefore, between hypoxia signaling and tissue remodeling will greatly help us to understand the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular disorders. The purpose of this review is to give a brief overview of the current understanding about the function HIF-α in inflammation processes especially by focusing on its roles in macrophages. In addition, the pathophysiological roles of hypoxia signaling for the development of cardiovascular disease will be discussed.

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  • Tsuyoshi Nozue
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 895-907
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: August 14, 2017

    Hypercholesterolemia, particularly an increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, contributes substantially to the development of coronary artery disease and the risk for cardiovascular events. As the first-line pharmacotherapy, statins have been shown to reduce both LDL-C levels and cardiovascular events. However, despite intensive statin therapy, a sizable proportion of statin-treated patients are unable to achieve the recommended target LDL-C levels, and not all patients can avoid future cardiovascular events. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis by enhancing the degradation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Owing to its importance in lipid metabolism, PCSK9 has emerged as a novel pharmacological target for lowering LDL-C levels. In this review, the potential role of circulating PCSK9 as a new biomarker of lipid metabolism is described. Next, previous studies evaluating the effects of lipid-modifying pharmacological agents, particularly statins, on circulating PCSK9 concentrations are summarized. Statins decrease hepatic intracellular cholesterol, resulting in increased LDLRs as well as increased PCSK9 protein. There is a clear dose-response effect of statin treatment on PCSK9 level, as increasing doses of statins also increase the level of circulating PCSK9. Finally, the available therapeutic strategies to inhibit PCSK9 are present. Monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9, in combination with statins, are one of the most promising and novel approaches to achieve further reduction of LDL-C levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.

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Original Article
  • Tatsuro Aikawa, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Meg ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 912-920
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: March 22, 2017

    Aim: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been reported to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether omega-3 PUFAs are involved in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) remains unclear.

    Methods: We analyzed 67 consecutive patients admitted for the elective surgical repair of AAA. We investigated the association of serum EPA and DHA levels as well as the EPA/AA ratio with the size of AAA assessed using three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography images.

    Results: Mean patient age was 70±9 years and 60 patients were male. Serum EPA and DHA levels were 75.2±35.7 μg/mL and 146.1±48.5 μg/mL, respectively. EPA/AA ratio was 0.44±0.22, which was lower than those in healthy Japanese subject and equivalent to those in Japanese patients with coronary artery disease as previously reported. Mean of the maximum AAA diameter was 56.4±8.9 mm, and serum EPA levels and EPA/AA ratio negatively correlated with it (r=−0.32 and r=−0.32, respectively). Multiple liner regression analysis showed that EPA levels were significant independent factor contributing to the maximum AAA diameter. Furthermore, low serum EPA levels and low EPA/AA ratio were significantly associated with the growth rate of AAA diameter (r=−0.43 and r=−0.33, respectively).

    Conclusion: EPA levels in patients with AAA were relatively low. Low serum EPA levels and EPA/AA ratio were associated with the size and growth rate of AAA.

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  • Eriko Nakamura, Yuichiro Sato, Takashi Iwakiri, Atsushi Yamashita, Say ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 921-927
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: March 31, 2017

    Aim: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, majority of patients with PAD are asymptomatic. This study aimed to histologically evaluate whether asymptomatic, lower extremity artery plaques are associated with systemic atherosclerosis and the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events using autopsy cases.

    Methods: We histologically investigated the atherosclerotic plaques of the common iliac, common carotid, coronary, and renal arteries from 121 autopsy cases without symptoms of PAD (mean age:67.6 years; 63% men; 83% non-CVD death). We evaluated the relationship between the degree of iliac artery atherosclerosis and that of other arteries, and also the presence of any CVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure.

    Results: Advanced atherosclerotic plaques (American Heart Association ≥4) were present in 86 (72%) common iliac arteries in these cases. These arteries also showed high frequencies of calcification (66%), intraplaque hemorrhage (42%), and plaque disruption (24%). These advanced lesions were associated with age (≥60 years), sex (male), hypertension, diabetes, and smoking habit (all P0.05). Additionally, it was significantly associated with CVD (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval; 6.2, 2.2–22), myocardial infarction (6.4, 1.2–19), stroke (8.7, 1.7–16), and renal failure/hemodialysis (5.8, 1.1–11). Cases with advanced iliac artery plaques had advanced coronary and carotid atherosclerosis.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that asymptomatic advanced plaques are frequently observed in common iliac arteries, and are associated with generalized atherosclerosis and CVD events.

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  • Daisuke Manita, Hiroshi Yoshida, Yuji Hirowatari
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 928-939
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: December 26, 2016

    Aim: Evaluation of serum lipoprotein profiles including triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein, that is, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and chylomicron (CM) remnant is important to manage coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate CHD or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores with cholesterol levels of six fractionated lipoprotein classes {high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], IDL, VLDL, CM including CM remnant, and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)]} in Japanese healthy men.

    Methods: The present study enrolled 161 healthy men without any medications. Lipoprotein profiles (fractionated lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were measured by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (AEX-HPLC) method and were compared with age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and three risk scores, that is, NIPPON DATA, Hisayama risk predicting model, and Suita score.

    Results: Levels of LDL-cholesterol (C), VLDL-C, and CM-C significantly differed with age, while values of HDL-C, IDL-C, and Lp(a)-C were not different. The eGFR inversely correlated with LDL-C, IDL-C, VLDL-C, and CM-C. In a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, VLDL-C only correlated independently with eGFR. Three risk scores significantly correlated with CM-C.

    Conclusions: These results suggested that VLDL-C concentration contributes to an increased risk at early stages of renal dysfunction, and CM-C may serve as a marker for estimating CHD risk in Japanese healthy men.

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  • Ji-Peng Zhou, Xiao-Yu Tong, Ling-Ping Zhu, Jing-Min Luo, Ying Luo, Yon ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 940-948
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: January 25, 2017

    Aim: Coronary collateral circulation (CCC) is crucial during an acute ischemic attack. Evidences showed that omentin-1 exhibited remarkable antiatherogenic effects and ischemia-induced revascularization. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma omentin-1 levels and CCC in patients with ≥90% angiography-proven coronary occlusion.

    Methods: 142 patients with ≥90% luminal diameter stenosis in at least one major epicardial coronary artery were recruited. Among them, 79 patients with Rentrop 0–1 grade were classified into the poor CCC group and 63 patients with Rentrop 2–3 grade were included into the good CCC group. The association between plasma omentin-1 levels and CCC status was assessed.

    Results: Plasma omentin-1 level was significantly higher in patients with good CCC than those with poor CCC (566.57±26.90 vs. 492.38±19.70 ng/mL, p=0.024). Besides, omentin-1 was positively correlated with total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein, and gensini score but inversely with hyperlipidemia and body mass index (all p values<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that omentin-1 [odds ratio (OR)=1.002, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.000–1.004, p=0.041)], TC, the number of the diseased vessels, a higher frequency of left circumflex artery and right coronary artery, chronic total occlusion, and gensini score remained as the independent predictors of good CCC.

    Conclusion: Higher plasma omentin-1 level was associated with better CCC development. Our findings suggest that omentin-1 may be an alternative marker for adequate CCC in patients with ≥90% coronary occlusion.

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  • Taro Harada, Kyoko Inagaki-Tanimura, Mototsugu Nagao, Yuki Sato, Marik ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 949-953
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2017

    Aim: We studied the frequency of Achilles tendon xanthoma (ATX) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, we investigated the differences in clinical findings between ACS patients with and without ATX.

    Methods: Patients with ACS (n=335) were admitted to the coronary care unit of Nippon Medical School between July 2011 and December 2014. Informed consent for the measurement of Achilles tendon thickness (ATT) on a radiograph was obtained from 228 patients without tendon rupture. ATT of each side was measured on the radiograph in patients with ACS and in those with acromegaly (n=18), non-familial hypercholesterolemia (non-FH; n=96), and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH; n=31).

    Results: ATT of the right and left side in ACS patients were 6.9±1.3 and 7.0±1.6 (mm; mean± SD). In acromegaly, non-FH, and FH patients, ATT of the right/left side were 6.6±1.1/6.7±1.1, 6.2±0.9/6.6±1.0, and 9.4±3.3/10.0±3.1, respectively. ATX (ATT ≥9 mm) was found in 26 (11.4%) patients with ACS. Patients with acromegaly and non-FH had no ATX, whereas all patients with FH had ATX. No differences in age and serum lipid profiles were observed between ACS patients with and without ATX. The levels of body mass index and glycated hemoglobin of ACS patients with ATX were significantly greater than those in ACS patients without ATX (26.8±4.0 vs. 23.9±3.3, p<0.05, and 6.9±1.4% 6.3±1.3%, p<0.05, respectively).

    Conclusion: This is the first report in which the frequency of ACS patients with ATX was 11.4%. The serum lipid profiles of ACS patients with ATX were similar to those without ATX. In the future, ACS patients with ATX will be diagnosed as having FH.

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  • Chiharu Takahashi, Makoto Kurano, Masako Nishikawa, Kuniyuki Kano, Tom ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 954-969
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2017

    Aim: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been suggested to be a positive regulator of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in adipocytes, while some studies are not consistent with this prothrombotic property of S1P. Since S1P is bound to apolipoprotein M (apoM) on HDL or to albumin in plasma, we compared the properties of these two forms on the PAI-1 induction.

    Methods: We investigated the associations of S1P, apoM, and PAI-1 concentrations in the plasma of normal coronary artery (NCA), stable angina pectoris (SAP), and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects (n=32, 71, and 38, respectively). Then, we compared the effects of S1P with various vehicles on the PAI-1 expression in 3T3L1 adipocytes. We also investigated the modulation of the PAI-1 levels in mice infected with adenovirus coding apoM.

    Results: Among ACS subjects, the PAI-1 level was positively correlated with the S1P level, but not the apoM level. In adipocytes, S1P bound to an apoM-rich vehicle induced PAI-1 expression to a lesser extent than the control vehicle, while S1P bound to an apoM-depleted vehicle induced PAI-1 expression to a greater extent than the control vehicle in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Additionally, apoM overexpression in mice failed to modulate the plasma PAI-1 level and the adipose PAI-1 expression level. S1P bound to albumin increased PAI-1 expression through the S1P receptor 2-Rho/ROCK-NFκB pathway.

    Conclusion: S1P bound to albumin, but not to apoM, induces PAI-1 expression in adipocytes, indicating that S1P can exert different properties on the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, depending on its vehicle.

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  • Akane Matsumoto, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Tetsuro Matsuoka, Kento Kayama, Su ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 970-979
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2017

    Aim: Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-derived bioactive molecule with antiatherogenic properties. We previously reported that cystatin C (CysC) abolished the anti-atherogenic effects of APN. We aimed to elucidate the clinical significance of CysC–APN complex in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Methods: We enrolled 43 stable CAD male patients to examine the relationship between CysC–APN complex and coronary plaque characteristics. Serum was immunoprecipitated by the anti-APN antibody and immunoblotted by the anti-CysC antibody to demonstrate the presence of CysC–APN complexes in vivo. To confirm their binding in vitro, HEK293T cell lysates overexpressing myc-APN and FLAG-CysC were immunoprecipitated with an anti-myc or anti-FLAG antibody, followed by immunoblotting with an anti-APN or anti-CysC antibody.

    Results: CysC was identified as a specific co-immunoprecipitant with APN by the anti-APN antibody in human serum. In vitro, FLAG-CysC was co-immunoprecipitated with myc-APN by the anti-myc antibody and myc-APN was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-CysC by the anti-FLAG antibody. Among CAD patients, serum CysC–APN complex levels negatively correlated with fibrotic components of coronary plaques and positively correlated with either necrotic or lipidic plus necrotic components. Plaque burden negatively correlated with serum APN levels but not serum CysC–APN complex levels. Serum CysC levels had no association with plaque characteristics. In multivariate analysis, CysC–APN complex levels were identified as the strongest negative factor for fibrotic components and the strongest positive factor for both necrotic and lipidic plus necrotic components.

    Conclusion: Measuring serum CysC–APN complex levels is helpful for evaluating coronary plaque instability in CAD patients.

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  • Hitoshi Shimada, Catarina Nilsson, Yoshinori Noda, Hyosung Kim, Torbjö ...
    2017 Volume 24 Issue 9 Pages 980-987
    Published: September 01, 2017
    Released: September 01, 2017
    [Advance publication] Released: March 24, 2017

    Aims: Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA.

    Methods: In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA.

    Results: A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively.

    Conclusions: The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects.

    Trial registration: NCT02372344

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