In adults, visceral fat accumulation is an important indicator for cardiovascular disease risk. This relationship is not fully understood in children. To determine the best predictor of cardiovascular disease risk factors among anthropometric indices such as body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%Fat), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (W/Ht ratio) in Japanese schoolchildren. This study included 880 children (447 boys and 433 girls), 9-13y of age. Dependent variables were total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDLC), atherogenic index(AI), life style related disease prevention score, and systolic(SBP) and diastolic(DBP) blood pressure. The strongest correlation was found between W/Ht ratio and the score by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that significant independent correlates for the score included W/Ht ratio and %Fat. Among the anthropometric indices, W/Ht ratio was the most significant predictor for TC, TG, LDLC, AI, and the score. W/Ht ratio is the best predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese schoolchildren. We propose using W/Ht ratio for detecting cardiovascular disease risk in children.
Cardiac death from atherosclerosis is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Although the enzymic activity of human serum paraoxonase (PON1) has been reported to be decreased in such patients, serum PON1 concentrations have not been measured. We investigated serum PON1 concentrations in 81 patients undergoing hemodialysis and 103 age-matched healthy subjects using an enzyme immunoassay. The PON1 concentration was significantly lower in the patient group than the control group (mean ± SD: 6.78 ± 3.56 vs 18.01 ± 4.55 U/ml, respectively. p < 0.0001). There were no significant relationships between serum PON1 concentrations and the PON1 genetic polymorphisms, 55Leu/Met(L/M) and 192Gln/Arg(Q/R). The concentration adjusted for HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A-I was also lower in the patient group. However, the specific activities(enzyme activity divided by the PON1 concentration) of paraoxonase and arylesterase were increased in the patient group compared with the control group. In the male patients, but not the female patients, PON1 concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with than without coronary heart disease(CHD) (mean ± SD: 4.48 ± 2.77 vs 7.34 ± 3.22 U/ml, respectively. p < 0.01). In conclusion, the serum PON1 concentration in hemodialyzed patients was significantly decreased, resulting in an attenuation of PON1 enzymic activity. This decrease may be in part involved in the development of cardiovascular disease.
Thalassemic (TM) patients are subjected to peroxidative tissue injury because of continuous blood transfusions. It has been documented that circulating LDL from TM patients show marked oxidative modification, that could represent an event leading to atherogenesis. We investigated in 75 β-TM patients the levels of oxidized LDL antibody (OLAB) to asses their correlation with total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides Apo A-1 and Apo B. OLAB/mg chol-LDL is greater in TM patients than healthy controls(p<0.001). No correlation was found between OLAB and age, sex of patients, mean blood consumption, mean serum ferritin, mean transaminases, PT, PTT, and fibrinogen. A significant positive correlation was found between OLAB and triglycerides in TM patients (p<0.001). Also a significant correlation was found between OLAB/mg chol-LDL and level of triglycerides in TM patients, but not with total cholesterol, LDL and HDL chols, Apo A-1 and Apo B. On the contrary in the healthy controls this correlation between OLAB and OLAB/mg chol-LDL versus triglycerides was negative and not significant. High levels of OLAB/mg chol-LDL in patients with β-thalassemia, in absence of evident signs of atherosclerosis, suggest some regulatory mechanisms on the lipid peroxidation which modulate the deposition of ox-LDL in the macrophages and support the hypothesis that both serum iron and triglycerides are involved in the pathogenesis of LDL oxidation.
WHHL rabbits are a valuable model for the study of human familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. To use this animal model, it is often necessary to confirm LDL receptor status in WHHL rabbits. Here, we described a simple and rapid PCR method to detect LDL mutations in WHHL rabbits.
Lentinus edodes mycelia lowers cholesterol levels and acts as an immunomodulator and tumor-inhibitor in animal models. Lentinus edodes mycelia contains eritadenine (C9H11O4N5) and glucans among other biological compounds. However, whether or not Lentinus edodes mycelia is anti-atherogenic remains unknown. We examined the effect of Lentinus edodes mycelia (L·E·M) on atherosclerosis in a rabbit model. Thirty-two Japanese white male rabbits were fed with 1.0% cholesterol for 8 weeks, then divided into groups and given 1) 1.0% cholesterol for over 8 weeks (control), 2) 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% L·E·M for over 8 weeks, 3) 1.0% cholesterol and 2.0% L·E·M for over 8 weeks, and 4) 1.0% cholesterol and 4.0% L·E·M for over 8 weeks (n=8 each group). Total cholesterol(TC) was measured periodically throughout the experiment. After the experimental periods, the aortas were removed and atherosclerotic lesions were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and morphometrically to determine surface involvement (SI) and an atherosclerotic index(AI). Body weight and TC did not significantly differ among the four groups. Decreases in SI were significant in the 1% L·E·M (26.2±10.8%) and 2% L·E·M (29.3±15.7%) groups compared with the control (48.7±15.3%;p < 0.05). The AI was significantly decreased in the 1% L·E·M(6.62±4.31) and 2% L·E·M (7.49±3.49) groups compared with the control (16.96±9.21;p < 0.05). Foam cells aggregated in thickened intima of dietary-induced atherosclerotic lesions in the rabbit aorta. In contrast, the numbers of foam cells in the intima decreased in the experimental group. No-cholesterol-lowering action or dose-dependant effects of L·E·M were determined in this study, but atherosclerotic development was significantly inhibited, indicating that L·E·M had anti-atherogenic properties. L·E·M may inhibit atherosclerotic development in rabbit aorta and be beneficial as a nutritional supplement.