Participants in the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai, Japan, March 14–18, 2015, discussed the successor framework of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) adopted at the 2005 Second World Conference on Disaster Reduction. These two frameworks were based on the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World adopted at the First World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction.
According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 187 United Nations member states attended the WCDRR, together with over 6,500 participants and over 100 minister-level officials, including the heads of state of seven countries, prime ministers of five countries (including Japan), vice-presidential officials from six countries, and deputy prime ministers from seven countries. Related events included 150,000 attendees from Japan and abroad.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR) and the Sendai Declaration were adopted by consensus as the outcome documents.
One feature of the WCDRR was the large number of citizens taking part. These included governments, international organizations, NGOs, private-sectors groups and universities. They took part in 398 symposiums and seminars, plus over 200 exhibitions and other events.
WCDRR discussions continued even after the conference, activating the Miyagi Roundtable for Disaster Risk Reduction, whose collaborators were from industry, government, academia, regular citizens, and the media. The Sendai Future Forum on Disaster Risk Reduction was held in March 2016, one year later. Information sharing and discussions on disaster risk reduction and reconstruction are now in progress.
The most remarkable aspect of the SFDRR as a WCDRR outcome document is the identification of seven global targets on disaster risk reduction. These targets were not included in either the Yokohama Strategy or the HFA. Two reasons why the target setting is significant are as follows:
1. Targets were determined considering the arguments on sustainable development goals. Although disasters have been major obstacles hampering economic growth, millennium development goals did not mention disaster risk reduction goals. Disaster risk reduction projects were thus not prioritized in many developing countries, where disaster risk is high. Disasters have continuously caused huge human and economic loss and required huge amounts of humanitarian assistance – an ongoing negative spiral.
2. Setting global targets are clearly different from the HFA. Voices from Japanese academia have suggested, for the first time, setting numerical targets in the HFA’s preparatory process. It was too early, however, to put it on the negotiation table because it lacked majority support. Western countries did not positively support the idea because it lacked a clear procedure for achieving such targets. It was reasonably pointed out that these targets could not be monitored without a yardstick, but member states reached the consensus to set seven targets at the SFDRR, although specific numbers were not clearly described. SFDRR targets were described as “substantial.” This “substantiality” has been negotiated continuously following the WCDRR.
The member states meaningfully agreed to encourage investment in global disaster risk reduction and to demonstrate performance numerically, which is why target setting is considered the SFDRR’s core component.
Note that articles in this special issue are categorized and briefly introduced corresponding to SFDRR priorities for action (Table 1).
Many of these articles deal with “educational” aspects. Priority 1 includes educational issues, and SFDRR target C mentions education. Educational matters are thus clearly one of the most important topics in the disaster risk reduction context. The SFDRR explicitly describes the ‘build back better’ concept, and ...
This report summarizes the conference proceedings of Fostering DRR through Education for Sustainable Development: Toward a Better Future for Children. The conference, held at Tohoku University’s Kawauchi Hagi Hall on March 16, 2015, and attended by over 1,000 participants, focused on disaster risk reduction education within the context of education for sustainable development. This report discusses major themes emerging from presentations and panel discussions and draws some broad conclusions.
This article reports on the public forum conducted by the authors at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from March 14 to 18, 2015. The conference included case studies of recent water-related disasters in the Southeast Asia region, reviews of academic research, and a description of the current situation about measures for risk reduction. This article also clarifies the relationship between the various recommendations proposed in the public forum and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (the Sendai framework), in order to identify the efforts that are necessary for the implementation of the Sendai framework.
Since the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction began in the 1990s, education has been recognized as having a cross-cutting role in disaster reduction by extending the people’s engagement to the creation and maintenance of sustainable communities internationally. During the same period, Japan has experienced large earthquakes, following which Japan has promoted comprehensive school safety and practical disaster education. Although conditions may vary between Japan and other countries, the approaches, issues and challenges of disaster education have much in common. The 2015-2030 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), fully integrates education and includes the overall goal of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the full disaster management cycle, from prevention, mitigation and preparedness to response, recovery and rehabilitation. Minimizing loss and damage to educational facilities is included as one of global indicators of SFDRR. A comprehensive approach to school safety is emphasized, including the safety of the learning environment, disaster management and DRR education. An awareness of such commonalities, under the SFDRR, international cooperation for promoting education for resilient communities should be promoted in Japan and globally.
A 3D documentary movie, “The Great Tsunami in Japan: Reflecting on the 2011 Disaster,” was produced and screened as a collaboration between the academic community and the media in order to communicate lessons from the tsunami that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake. The movie was first shown in March 2015 at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. This article discusses issues and outcomes of the collaboration in terms of the publicity activities of disaster research. An analysis of comments from viewers, Japanese and overseas guests alike, revealed a generally high evaluation of the film. The following outcomes were noted: 1) a large and varied audience, 2) the communication of academic information to members of the general public with no apparent resistance from them, and 3) an impressive presentation of the event, the subsequent reconstruction works, and the importance of keeping the memory of the disaster alive. Future issues will include deeper collaboration between the academic community and the media for disaster risk reduction purposes as well as studies on how such 3D images and movies can affect the passing down of memories of the disaster.
The contexts in which “safe” and “safety” are used in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction are clarified to inform the selection of necessary elements in establishing science for global safety in relation to disaster risk reduction. The present report shows that “safe” and “safety” are used in the contexts of health, legal systems, housing, more assured provision of means of livelihood, and important infrastructure. From the perspective of the continuity of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and preceding international policies, it is determined that the contexts of legal systems, health, and land usage are significant to establishing science for global safety.
We hosted a public forum on the theme of geoparks in disaster-stricken areas at the UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. It was found that the participants shared a common understanding that the important tasks of a geopark are to provide content based on the advantages of viewing the two aspects of nature – namely, disasters and gifts – from a common perspective, and to create a network supporting the expert knowledge needed for this content and the skills to convey such knowledge.
This paper reports on the Archiving and Memorializing Disasters International Workshop, a side event organized for the Third World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held on March 14-18, 2015 in Sendai, Japan. The public workshop consisted of presentations by experts of disaster archives and a panel discussion. The wide-ranging backgrounds of these experts – anthropology, history and engineering – provided for a pioneering and interdisciplinary approach to the fields of disaster archives and memorialization. The aim of this workshop was to reflect on the potential roles of disaster archives and memorialization, with particular reference to the third priority for action – Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience – of the new UN-endorsed Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-30). Presentations covered several projects in digital archiving of disasters and research on memorialization processes of disasters. It was concluded that archiving and memorialization can, and should, play a complementary and significant role in disaster risk reduction.
This paper introduces practical efforts to reduce local disasters in the “Project on civil empowerment for ‘zest for life during a disaster’” undertaken by the authors and the three projects that have been developed and implemented thus far: “Pocket Notebook and Handbook for Family’s Disaster Resilience (MINNA-NO-BOSAI TECHO),” “Pocket Notebook and Handbook for Boys and Girls Disaster Resilience (BOKU-NO-WATASHI-NO-BOSAI TECHO),” and “SENDAI CAMP (BOSAI CAMP).” These activities were reported on a public forum in the third UN World Congress on Disaster Reduction, where the importance of involving all citizens in disaster reduction and prevention through projects was recognized in a comprehensive discussion.
The Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) organized a public forum in March 2015 at the UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in collaboration with the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) of Japan. Discussion focused on three topics – bridging the gap between scientific theory and practice, how science and technology could contribute to practical Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and the role of social science in DRR. These sessions led to three major recommendations:
1) Enhanced collaboration between the private sector and academia
2) Multisectoral collaboration, including local schools and communities, to make data and technologies useful, usable and accessible
3) Social science elements such as psychology, cultural studies, communication, ethics and history incorporating disaster risk sciences because most current problems involve social rather engineering aspects. Social science potentially balances qualitative and quantitative methods well.
Three UN world conferences held on reducing disaster damage – the 1994 World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction held in Yokohama during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Reduction held in Hyogo Prefecture, and the 2015 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai – resulted in the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World, the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA), and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
The sections that follow clarify Sendai Framework features compared to the Yokohama Strategy and the HFA based on a three-stage review of the literature:
(1) Overviews of the three documents, including framework structures, are arranged with basic conference information and a comparative study.
(2) A quantitative text analysis is conducted using the KH Coder, which is free quantitative text analysis software. Words occurring frequently in the documents are extracted and compared and a co-occurrence network is analyzed to determine relationships among these words.
(3) Features of the three documents, mainly focusing on the Sendai Framework, are specified and clarified based on the result of quantitative text analysis.
The Global Centre for Disaster Statistics was established at the UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in March 2015 in Sendai Japan. It aims to support the monitoring and evaluation of progress in implementing the conference’s outcome agreement, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, by providing support at country level for capacity building in developing national statistics on disaster damage and by establishing an improved global database of such statistics.
The Centre is hosted at Tohoku University under a unique scheme of cooperation with the UN Development Programme and other partner agencies in Japan. In this paper we provide a short review on the current situation of disaster damage statistics in the world and outline the strategy of the Centre to develop better disaster damage databases and to strengthen the governance on DRR in local/national level through country-based support.
During the UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), discussions on “designing for a safe and secure home and community” referenced various case studies and challenges from the “Build Back Better” (hereafter “BBB”) project. This paper introduces the following achievements of the BBB projects carried out by the authors:
1 leadership from academia that established a framework of practical dialogue (conferences) – more than mere information sharing – for maturing plans,
2 creation of the master plan concepts for each project based on expert perspectives in urban planning, landscape, and architecture,
3 development of an interrelationship between local tsunami defenses, such as river and coastal levees, and community-specific contexts and damaged facilities within the framework of civic design and community-building in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,
4 designing of reconstruction plans achievable through coordination with relevant institutions and through consensus-building with residents amid a high number of reconstruction projects,
5 advanced level of maturation of plans gained through continuous collaboration, and
6 creation of a place for community interaction as one step in recovery process and as a venue to realize the importance of public information disclosure
Town planning for reconstruction after large-scale disasters that is led exclusively by the local government may be insufficient. However, it is also difficult to effectively incorporate citizen participation into planning because of insufficient government manpower and a lack of time among citizens. The present study surveys and analyzes a process of mutual coordination between a local government and citizens involved in town reconstruction planning after a large-scale disaster in order to understand how citizens’ participation in the early stages of the planning process for town reconstruction should be. A local study meeting in Miyako City is taken as a case example. As a method of incorporating citizen participation, it is found that the local study meeting was simple and effective method in obtaining consensus among local residents, but was not effective and may even have exacerbated disagreement regarding fundamental issues.
Business Continuity Advancement Organization (BCAO)* and Tohoku University jointly organized a public forum on business continuity management (BCM) during the third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai. From the experience of the 2011 great East Japan earthquake, Japan learned many ways to improve BCM. The progress and direction of BCM was discussed in this forum. Additionally, best practices of BCM and disaster management were awarded by BCAO in the latter part of the forum.
* Details of BCAO is available at http://www.bcao.org/ (August 31, 2005)
The Tohoku Reconstruction & Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Pavilion at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction was designed to provide information on and ideas about the great East Japan earthquake (GEJE) disaster and the reconstruction efforts and lessons learned from it. Disseminating information on disaster and reconstruction is essential to achieving DRR by multistakeholders through sharing knowledge such as objective perspectives, the historical background of disaster responses and the reality of reconstruction. The pavilion’s original production structure lacked a scheme unifying strong regional institutions such as the International Research Institute of Disaster Science and local creative talent. The original pavilion proposal also did not convey the disaster’s multiple facets. The Sendai School of Design (SSD) served as an intermediate platform for unifying academic knowledge, regional creative professionals and local bodies. The SSD designed and produced a pavilion for the diverse visitors from different backgrounds, literacy, experience and language with the local oriented production structure for dissemination directed by T. Iwasawa with the supervision by Y. Onoda. Effective dissemination enhances awareness and helps promote the DRR and implement reconstruction through the sharing of information. The local oriented production structure proved to effectively organize local power and knowledge for this purpose.
The concept of ‘building back better’ is being mainstreamed in international development to minimize future devastation from natural disasters. This paper reports on presentations and discussions from the Second International Symposium on Recovery after Mega Disasters: People, Community and Planning, held March 16, 2015 during the Third World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. International experts, including practitioners and researchers, presented varied recovery efforts and insights. The three following principles emerged from the symposium. 1) Relocation, compact (re)development, renewable energy, and flood controls are key policy focuses in recovery plans, and require careful individual and community involvement, planning designs, and information sharing. 2) Identifying unique local resources is key for successful recovery and can help formulate innovative strategies. 3) As rebuilding that considers local culture, systems, and groups aids in resilient recovery, planning practitioners need in-depth understanding of local contexts to derive better solutions. Given these three principles, participants agreed that at its core, the concept of ‘building back better’ requires tailor-made planning designs and processes.
This study aims to make public the findings on the following questions regarding nuclear emergency response drills from the perspective of engaged residential organizations in local communities: What kind of local knowledge did the nuclear emergency response drills formulate among residents? What types of evacuation behaviors did the residents adopt based on such local knowledge? What kinds of difficulties did the residents experience when they actually evacuated?
During recent mega-disasters, such as the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 2011 Thailand floods, interdependencies in supply chains caused substantial economic damage, often exacerbated by vulnerable small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Therefore, a new global framework in disaster risk reduction, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, mentions the role of the private sector in achieving a resilient society. However, the framework’s statements are abstract and they need to be converted into actionable agendas. This paper identifies future directions for private sector resilience to disasters, focusing on business continuity. Even though business continuity has been regarded as a critical factor in conventional disaster planning, Business Continuity Management (BCM), articulated as a holistic management process, tends to be designed and implemented selectively by each organization. To address SMEs and supply chain resilience, this paper proposes a new type of BCM, a regional BCM based on Public-Private Partnership (PPP), and a new role for the insurance industry.
Our purpose in this paper is to determine the minimum standards of emergency goods to be made available to persons adversely affected by earthquakes to implement quick, accountable emergency response activities. Our results show the minimum standards for emergency earthquake relief goods well-suited to Indonesia’s local population. Our results are expected to be used to help define the types of emergency goods required following a disastrous earthquake. Our research includes information about a variety of emergency goods determined through questionnaires distributed to the earthquake-affected persons once designated as internally displaced persons (IDPs). Those answering questionnaires were asked to rate the importance of goods based on their experience during postearthquake evacuation.
This research describes outcomes from a project that aimed to present near real-time bushfire information to remote and regional Australian communities susceptible to bushfires through an intuitive and easy to use interface. This project arose as a response to calls for increased information sharing amongst communities and individuals in the wake of several severe fire events in Australia. Several rounds of user engagement were undertaken, which informed the design of an application that came to be known as MyFireWatch, which was launched as an officially-supported publicly-accessible web application. Previous research in Australia regarding bushfire information suggests that user-sourced data can provide rich, timely and meaningful information. Yet the MyFireWatch research, the first of its kind in Australia to ascertain community attitudes to user-sourced disaster information, found that user attitudes varied. This paper describes those user attitudes and how they pose both challenges and opportunities for organisations who provide publicly-accessible disaster information.
Chiangrai is a city located in the seismic risk area. The recent earthquake with magnitude of 6.3 occurred on May 5, 2014 caused widespread damage to buildings. However, with limitation of engineers, equipment and budget, it is impossible to repair all buildings in the same time. Therefore, this research proposes a method to identify critical buildings and prioritize their repairing requirements using fuzzy logic. The strength of fuzzy logic is that it can approximate the vague information, unable to make decision, to the numerical data. The evaluated factors were composed of building damaged level, indirect impact and building occupancy. With the vague information, the IF-THEN rule based form was adopted to evaluate an important index of each building. Results of the analysis was found that the buildings having more important, severely damaged and high indirect impacts on the community, such as hospital buildings and power plants will be considered with higher priority to repairs. The important indexes of the buildings were 0.718 and 0.500, respectively. For buildings with less important as garage buildings, the important index was 0.114 which identified as non-urgent repair.
Estimating electric power supply restrictions after the Nankai Trough earthquake and evaluating the need for reinforcing the capacity of lines interconnecting power supply areas, we found that capacity reinforcement of the Chubu-Kansai interconnection line used an electricity supply capability in the 60 Hz area of the western part of Japan after the disaster. We also found that this is effective in reducing risk in electric power supply restrictions, based on certain conditions. We also found by estimating construction and maintenance costs that the capacity reinforcement of the Chubu-Kansai interconnection line reduces risk and costs less than an east-west interconnection line.
In this study, damage caused by Typhoon Haiyan in the city of Tacloban, Philippines is extracted from COSMO-SkyMed imagery data. A multitemporal correlation map, i.e., a color composite of the backscattering coefficients obtained on different days and their correlation coefficients, is used to indicate changes. The Hyperboloid Change Index is proposed as a measure of the level of destruction. The method is demonstrated in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system to elaborate the relationships among the aforementioned parameters. Compared to other candidate methods, a hyperboloid equation is found to be the most suitable for change detection, and its resulting positive value indicates that the typhoon had a high level of impact on the area. Potential damage areas are extracted using a thresholding operation, and the results are compared to two WorldView-2 satellite images to specifically assess coastal erosion and damage to buildings and offshore fish traps.
A battery-free radio receiver, HOOPRA (hoop type radio), is proposed for acquiring information using middle wave AM radio broadcasting during unexpected power failures or disasters, with emphasis on wide coverage, immediate information acquisition, and energy saving. The HOOPRA utilizes middle waves for energy harvesting. As this radio is intended for use during disasters, the protection methods, receiving performance, and the applications of energy harvesting are reported in this paper. The HOOPRA is ring-shaped with a diameter of 20 cm when retracted, for portability and 60 cm when expanded, for usage and is lightweight (180 g). The HOOPRA works on the principle of a crystal radio but has an adequate receiving performance without an external antenna that is generally necessary for crystal radios and is portable. It could receive a radio broadcast within an area of radius 15 km from a transmitting station of the NHK Fukui Daiichi Broadcasting (JOFG, 5 kW). Further, the energy harvested from the middle waves utilizing the high sensitivity of the HOOPRA was found to light-up a white LED. In a field test with the HOOPRA, it was found that the receiving sensitivity was particularly enhanced near a tall building, probably owing to the diffraction effect of the radio waves. Use of this effect for enhancing the sensitivity of the battery-free radio is also explained.