Journal of Disaster Research
Online ISSN : 1883-8030
Print ISSN : 1881-2473
ISSN-L : 1881-2473
10 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
Mini Special Issue on Space Microbiology: Microbial Monitoring in the International Space Station - “Kibo”
  • Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Masao Nasu
    原稿種別: Review
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1022-1024
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Microbes exist everywhere, and studies have demonstrated the presence of viable microorganisms in a crewed space habitat. Microorganisms within space habitats pose potential hazards to crew health and potentially damage hardware. Continuing successful long-term space habitation requires fundamental information on microbiological safety for avoiding biohazards in space. We discuss the importance of researching microbes in crewed space habitats and of monitoring microbes on the International Space Station (ISS). We also review environmental microbiology perspectives in crewed space habitats and the microbiology of the space environment (astromicrobiology).

  • Masaki Shirakawa, Fumiaki Tanigaki, Takashi Yamazaki
    原稿種別: Review
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1025-1030
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a completely closed environment that offers a long-term microgravity environment. It is a unique environment where microbes can fly and attach themselves to devices or humans, especially the exposed parts of the body and head. The ongoing monitoring and analysis of microbes and their movement inside the Japanese Experiment Module (named “Kibo”) of the ISS are intended to study the effects of microbes on humans and prevent health hazards caused by microbes during a long-term space mission. This paper describes the current status and future plan of Japanese microbiological experiments to monitor microbial dynamics in Kibo. It also describes the future prospective and prioritized microbiological research areas based on the “Kibo utilization scenario towards 2020 in the field of life science.” Given the microbial research in space being actively conducted by the USA, NASA and international activities are also reported.

  • Takashi Sugita, Otomi Cho
    原稿種別: Review
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1031-1034
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    A wide variety of microorganisms colonize the human skin and are important to maintaining human health. However, this community is highly sensitive to perturbations, and diseases can develop when the skin microbiome is disrupted by a change in host or environmental conditions. The International Space Station (ISS) is a closed environment, and astronauts on the ISS do not wash their bodies as frequently as when they are on the ground. The maintenance of a balanced skin microbiome is important to overall health, disease prevention, and a high quality of life while on the ISS. The skin fungal microbiome is dominated by Malassezia sp. These lipophilic fungi are ubiquitous across different skin types, whereas changes in the levels of M. globosa and M. restricta are correlated with the formation of seborreich dermatitis/dandruff. The Malassezia microbiome on the skin of astronauts staying on the ISS changed, and there was a reduction in skin fungal microbial diversity. These findings provide useful information about temporal changes in the hygiene of astronauts who are on the ISS for an extended period and indicate that Malassezia microbiome as microbiological markers of skin hygiene.

  • Tomoaki Ichijo, Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Masao Nasu
    原稿種別: Review
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1035-1039
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Since 2009, we have been continuously performing bacterial monitoring in Kibo, the Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station (ISS), in cooperation with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The objective of this research is to monitor microbes and analyze their dynamics in Kibo from environmental microbiological viewpoints. In this review, we summarize our research related to bacterial monitoring in Kibo.

Regular Papers
  • Natt Leelawat, Anawat Suppasri, Shuichi Kure, Carine J. Yi, Cherry May ...
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1041-1050
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    In this research on disaster warning systems, the Philippines was selected to be a case study. The Philippines was hit by a particularly bad storm in 2013 Super Typhoon Haiyan. Here we focused on warning system process management from an enterprise engineering perspective. In understanding warning systems, it is necessary to know the essence of overall processes. The objective of this qualitative study is to determine the system’s essential components by using the Design and Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO). This involves both assigning responsibility levels and utilizing both traditional means such as broadcast vehicles with speakers and radios and newer means such as Internet channels to disseminate warning information. The findings provide a simple model explaining the disaster-related organization and communication structure. They also contribute a practical aspect in the form of suggestions to planners and decision makers that may assist them in preparing mitigation plans for projected natural disasters.

  • Masahiro Matsuyama, Reo Kimura, Haruo Hayashi
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1051-1066
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Based on the author’s work experiences at the Kobe City fire department, this study examines the deaths directly and indirectly caused by earthquakes based on an examination of the firefighting, rescue, and emergency care operations that took place following the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. In particular, this study examines the ways in which the voluntary disaster-prevention organizations as well as the public services institutions, including the fire and police departments, have incorporated the lessons learned from previous disaster experiences. This approach is based on an observation of the operations conducted in Kobe City, and presents a framework aimed toward protecting lives from future earthquake disasters.

  • Angela Santos, Shunichi Koshimura
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1067-1080
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The numerical model of the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami was conducted at Vila do Bispo municipality. The tsunami source area of this historical event is assumed to be on the Gorringe Bank. Numerical model results of historical data have been validated by a combined analysis of eyewitnesses’ accounts, field surveys, geological records and archeological findings (conducted by previous authors). The coastal area has remained a mostly natural landscape since the 18th century, with popular beaches that increase the population potentially exposed to a tsunami, especially one occurring in summer. For these reasons, we use local tsunami hazard assessment as a criterion varying between moderate and critical. Results also show that the 16 low ground areas we surveyed were inundated between 15 and 30 minutes after the earthquake. For this reason, persons should act quickly in future to evacuate areas immediately after an earthquake and to move to higher ground. Results also show that safe, swift evacuation may be difficult in 50% of these areas, endangering special populations such as tourists. Tsunami information boards should therefore be put on beaches and evacuation exercises and drills should be implemented and practiced regularly.

  • Yasuki Iizuka, Katsuya Kinoshita, Kayo Iizuka
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1081-1090
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    As an issue was raised with respect to the following paper published in the Journal of Disaster Research (JDR), we conducted an investigation.

    A) Paper published in the JDR

    Yasuki Iizuka, Katsuya Kinoshita, and Kayo Iizuka, “A Distributed Autonomous Approach to Developing a Disaster Evacuation Assist System,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1081-1090, 2015. (Received: July 31, 2015, Accepted: October 21, 2015, Published: December 1, 2015)

    B) Paper compared

    Yasuki IIZUKA, Katsuya KINOSHITA, Kayo IIZUKA, “Agent Based Disaster Evacuation Assistance System,” Information Engineering Express International Journal, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 41-50 (2015). (Published: June 30, 2015)

    1. Results of Investigation

    - The texts of the two papers were compared, whereupon a percentage match exceeding 47 percent was found in terms of the number of words. When the comparison was made with the initially submitted manuscript, that is, the manuscript before it was revised based on peer reviews, the percentage match with paper B was 58 percent.

    - When the conclusions of the two papers were compared, they were found to be nearly identical, from which we conclude that paper A does not display sufficient novelty.

    - Paper B is not cited as a reference in paper A, and when the same figure appears in the two documents, its source is not cited.

    - It was found that, during the period from manuscript submission to publication, the authors failed to submit paper B as a previously published paper, as stipulated in Article 11.2 of the JDR Instructions to Authors (Japanese version), or otherwise submit any documentation that refers to the existence of paper B.

    2. Decision

    As a result of the above investigation, the JDR editorial board concludes that paper A constitutes a duplicate submission and is in violation of the JDR Instructions to Authors (Japanese version). Its acceptance is thereby revoked, and it has been duly removed from the JDR official website.

    Any inquiries regarding this matter should be made to this office:

    JDR Editorial Office, Fuji Technology Press Ltd.

    Unizo Uchikanda 1-Chome Bldg. 2F

    1-15-7 Uchikanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0047, Japan

    TEL: 03-5577-3851 FAX: 03-5577-3861

    E-mail: disaster@fujipress.jp

  • Abednico Lopang Montshiwa, Akio Nagahira
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1091-1098
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Recently, automobile parts manufacturers have faced unprecedented natural disaster challenges in their operations. It is increasingly complicated to prepare for disruptions in this industry owing to both its elaborate and extensive supply chain network and the ever increasing number of natural disaster events around the world. We surveyed the impacts of business continuity management (BCM) on 92 automobile parts markers in disaster-prone regions (Asia and North America). The survey revealed that risk-conscious companies reported better business impact analysis (BIA) and supply chain cooperation status than did non-risk conscious companies. Of the companies that were satisfied with their BIA (59%), 40% stated that their business enterprises faced no risks at all. 56% of the 16% that were dissatisfied with their BIA status indicated that their business enterprises faced no risks at all. We also found that majority the of companies with weak supply chain network considered themselves to have no risks at all (58%), compared to 42% of the companies that had good supply chain network. The survey also found that 44% of respondents were satisfied with recovery time capability; similarly, the majority of respondents (54%) were confident that their BCM would yield competitive advantages.

  • M. A. C. Niroshinie, Yasuo Nihei, Kazuaki Ohtsuki, Shoji Okada
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1099-1109
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Coupled one and two-dimensional (1D-2D) hydraulic models play a significant role in analyzing flooding problems to find possible solutions as they can reproduce the actual situations relatively accurately. This paper summarizes approaches to flood inundation analysis and mitigation with coupled 1D-2D hydraulic models of a small mountain watershed in Japan. A detailed flood inundation model including the effects of drainages, pumping, inflow from mountain sub-watersheds and flood gates is developed using coupled 1D-2D hydraulic models. The model is applied to the inundation in Kubokawa, a small town in Kochi Prefecture, Japan on August 9-10, 2014. Simulated and observed maximum water levels along the river and maximum inundations in the flood plain are compared and found to be consistent. Causes of the flooding and percentage of contribution are quantitatively identified, and countermeasures to reduce the effects of flooding are proposed.

  • Feixing Wang, Xiaoling Gu
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1110-1116
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The discrete time model we propose for option pricing, called the mixed-multinomial tree model (MMTM), extends the conventional multinomial tree model by assuming that both the number of branches of node m and possible values ui are random variables during each period. The conventional multinomial tree model cannot be used to describe the accumulated loss process in earthquakes because earthquakes occur randomly and different main shocks may have different aftershocks. We therefore apply the MMTM to build an accumulated earthquake loss model in earthquake catastrophe options. We study option pricing for such a model and obtain a call option pricing formula.

  • Rui Nouchi, Shosuke Sato, Fumihiko Imamura
    原稿種別: Paper
    2015 年 10 巻 6 号 p. 1117-1125
    発行日: 2015/12/01
    公開日: 2019/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 continues to emphasize disaster education for disaster risk reduction. We developed a new disaster education package using a disaster prevention notebook and quizzes and investigated its benefits for disaster prevention and mitigation. The disaster prevention notebook was developed by the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) of Tohoku University. It explains how to prevent natural disasters and how to act during natural disasters. Seventy nine elementary school students participated in the new disaster education package using disaster prevention pocket notebook and quizzes or the disaster education package with cartoons and quizzes. They answered some questions before and after learning using the educational materials. Results clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of these disaster education programs on protective actions and the prevention actions related to disasters. We discussed the advantages of the new disaster education package on disaster education. We suggest that thinking about the situation and deciding one’s own behaviors might enhance self-regulated learning which includes metacognition, strategic action, and motivation to learn. We assume that our new disaster education would facilitate metacognition, strategic action, and motivation to learn in the self-regulation learning theory.

feedback
Top