TIEMS – The International Emergency Society founded in 1993 – is a global forum for education, training, certification and policy in emergency and disaster management. TIEMS is dedicated to developing a safer world by bringing the benefits of modern emergency management tools, techniques and good industry practice. The Japan Chapter of TIEMS was established in 2011 when Japan members agreed on the great worth of the Society’s mission.
The Japan Chapter organized the Oct. 20-23, 2014, TIEMS Annual Conference in Niigata. Niigata was chosen because the year 2014 had a special meaning in the history of disasters in Japan. That is, the memorials of four major disasters had memorial anniversaries in that year – the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Niigata Earthquake, the 40th anniversary of the 1974 Niigata Yakeyama Volcano eruption, and the 10th anniversaries of the 2004 Niigata-Fukushima flood and Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake. The event brought over 1,000 domestic and international participants together to discuss risk management and resilience against disasters. The event also provided many opportunities for participants to share their scientific knowledge learn about the lessons from past experience of practitioners in the disaster management field and view the industry exhibition emerging to a wide variety of experience in disaster response.
With so many experts and practitioners willing to make presentations at the Conference, the JDR has brought together selected 17 papers and other output from them. My colleagues and I am honored to make these TIEMS 2014 achievements known to the broadest possible audience, and we are assured that this will create many fruitful outcomes for our reading audience.
This paper introduces a technology sharing platform for the global network on climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). The platform defines a foundation that provides various products or services and its objective is to allow demanders, suppliers and experts to share DRR technology.
The platform is divided into architecture and governance. The fundamental component of architecture relies on detailed technology information which includes structured technology such as technology, systems, tools, analytical models, and non-structured technology such as standards, codes, process, and consulting. The architecture also includes a case study of the application and evaluation for the DRR technology to determine its performance level. Finally, architecture will include a function that enables stakeholders to provide their opinions, experience, and judgements related to the case study.
The primary function of the platform’s governance is to exchange the opinions and prepare incentives for sharing information among demanders like the UN organizations and Asia-Pacific nations, as well as suppliers of private sectors and institutions. In addition, subject matter experts can provide input on DRR technology as gatekeepers and participate in the community by presenting their opinions to technology applications.
The expert survey from multiple Asian-Pacific countries reached the conclusion that the even distribution of DRR technology through a web based platform among the countries is necessary. In addition, the case studies from technology in practice were deemed as more critical than the DRR technology content itself due to their practical applications.
This study focuses on recovery efforts following the Mid-Niigata Earthquake in October 2004 and the Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake in July 2007 in Niigata Prefecture. Results of a randomsample questionnaire survey conducted in affected areas and throughout the prefecture are analyzed using a life recovery calendar, which identifies disaster damage in affected areas and in Niigata with the objective of systematically understanding the status and process of rebuilding lives. Although the magnitude of devastation and the nature of the disasters differ, both have similar life recovery processes. It is to be noted, however, that the impact of the Mid-Niigata Earthquake lingered over a larger area for a longer period than for the Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake.
The flooding of the Chao Phraya River in Thailand and the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, both of which occurred in 2011, reminded us of the risks of business disruption and further impacts on national, regional, and global economies through supply chains when disasters occur anywhere in the world.
Considering the increasing economic losses attributable to disasters, the fourth session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (2013) aimed to promote resilience and foster new opportunities for public-private partnerships as part of an overall approach to improving risk governance. Furthermore, it highlighted that a growing world requires a new approach to development action, emphasizing the private sector’s role in managing disaster risks.
One of the most significant private sector contributions to disaster risk management is the creation of the business continuity plan/planning (BCP) and business continuity management (BCM) systems, which were standardized as ISO22301 and disseminated in many business enterprises around the world.
However, a BCP or BCM system has been neither formulated for nor implemented in most local enterprises in industry agglomerated areas, even though these are located in areas vulnerable to disasters.
Moreover, in the case of large-scale disasters, a business enterprise’s capacity may be too limited to mitigate damages and maintain operations through its own efforts, even if BCPs are prepared. The main reason for this is the disruption of public infrastructure and services.
In order to minimize the negative economic impacts or economic losses, particularly in the case of a large-scale disaster that disrupts the fundamental infrastructure in certain areas, it is important to conduct risk assessment on a proper scale and to prepare scenario-based disaster management plans for area-wide damage mitigation. In addition, it is essential to have integrated resource management and strategic recovery plans to support each enterprise’s BCM actions in coordination with public sector activities.
Considering this backgrounds, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the ASEAN Coordination Center for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Center) launched the “Natural Disaster Risk Assessment and Area Business Continuity Plan Formulation for Industrial Agglomerated Areas in the ASEAN Region” project in February 2013.
The project introduced the new concept of the Area BCP, which, based on a risk assessment of the area, designates a framework and direction for coordinated damage mitigation measures and recovery actions by stakeholders, including individual enterprises, industrial area managers, local authorities, and infrastructure administrators, to allow business continuation of the industrial area as a whole. The project also established Area BCM as a cyclic process of risk assessment, sharing risk and impact information, determining a common strategy of risk management, developing the Area BCP, implementing and monitoring the planned actions to continuously improve the Area BCM system, and coordinating among stakeholders, in order to improve the capability for effective business continuity of the area.
This paper aims to evaluate the progress of the project and to explore lessons from the applied process of Area BCM and its benefits.
This study analyzes the disaster educational programs that were implemented under the “Disaster Management Education Challenge Plan,” an education project supported by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. In this study, cluster analysis of the characteristics of the disaster educational programs led to categorization of the programs into four types. The results are expected to encourage the general public to launch disaster management educational activities that incorporate practice cases from each of the four types of programs, and will likely spur the development of further programs.
Emergency management personnel must handle many jobs in response to a large earthquake – and this means they must be trained properly. Training is done many ways. In undergoing training, emergency management personnel build their abilities in making appropriate decisions. Traditional emergency management exercises had participants analyze and discuss their duties based more on the printed word than on computer use. Such exercises cannot provide more true disaster background information. These exercises process cannot be recorded in computer database for later review. One strategy for enhancing the immersive exercise experience is using virtual reality simulation technology to build Web-based exercises in emergency earthquake management. In this paper, we present an empirical study on how emergency earthquake exercises are used to design and conduct emergency exercises in JICA-designed emergency earthquake and rescue exchanges between China and Japan. We detail how exercises were designed and done, highlighting immersive aspects. All exercises involved the analysis of computer recordings of each exercise, statements from participants and observations by teachers during exercises. Results indicate that participants can immerse themselves in computer-centered exercises and imagine what it is like to actually be handling that emergency. We found these exercises to be effective in developing participants’ abilities to operate in disaster management and suitable for application to emergency earthquake response exercises on all levels of government in China.
Natural disasters like flood, earthquake, cyclone, volcanic eruption and others are causing immense losses to the property and lives every year. Current status and actual loss information on natural hazards can be determined and also prediction for next probable disasters can be made using different remote sensing and mapping technologies. Global Positioning System (GPS) calculates the exact position of damage. It can also communicate with wireless sensor nodes embedded in potentially dangerous places. GPS provides precise and accurate locations and other related information like speed, track, direction and distance of target objects to emergency responders.
Remote Sensing facilitates to map damages without having physical contact with target area. Now with the addition of more remote sensing satellites and other advancements, early warning system is used very efficiently. Remote sensing is being used both at local and global scale. High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI), airborne remote sensing and space-borne remote sensing is playing a vital role in disaster management.
Early in Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to collect, arrange, and map the spatial information, but now it has the capability to analyze spatial data. This analytical ability of GIS is the main cause of its adoption by different emergency service providers like the police and ambulance service.
The full potential of these so called 3S technologies cannot be used alone. Integration of GPS and other remote sensing techniques with GIS has pointed new horizons in modeling of earth science activities. Many remote sensing cases, including Asian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, Mount Mangart landslides and Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005 are described in this paper.
This study models the relationship between dynamic stress and dynamic failure characteristics in the extremely complex geological setting of a metal mine. The study also discusses the relationship between dynamic failure characteristics and dynamic stress in the case of mining disturbance of overlying rock mass is also discussed from the micro and macroscopic perspectives. Firstly, according to the relationship between different processes of overlying rock damage evolution and stress (tensile, shear, and compressive stresses), dynamic damage to overburden rock was linked with different stresses to analyze the mechanisms by which different forms of stress lead to differing damage characteristics in overburden rock. Secondly, from the different damage characteristics associated with shear, tensile, and compressive stress, the internal stress distribution in overburden rock was separated into four areas: tensile-tensile, tensile-compressive, compressive-compressive, and shear-compressive. Finally, it is found that horizontal and vertical stresses vary according to mining processes, and the reasons for this are analyzed. A stress concentration curve attachment is a vaulted curve on different goaf horizontal level under different working size. The centrostigma of vertical stress and shear stress also forms an arch curve, resulting in a compressive balance arch.
The First Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Committee on Disaster Management Meeting established a framework for ASEAN-US cooperation on the Disaster Management Program in 2003, focusing on capability building for the Incident Command System (ICS). The ICS was then adopted as part of the on-scene disaster response system in the Republic of the Philippines as enacted by the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act in 2010. This study investigates the process of adopting the ICS, its current status, and future issues through interview surveys of local and national governments in the Philippines. After adopting and implementing of the ICS as the national disaster response system for the Philippines is investigated, the current status of the ICS at the local government level is surveyed in a flood-prone area of the Pampanga River basin in central Luzon. Results show that the ICS has been adopted on all levels of government – national, regional, provincial, municipal, and barangay, i.e., the country’s smallest administrative division. Each local government level has incorporated the ICS into its contingency plan. Several issues related to future disaster response planning and capacity building are then reviewed.
This paper explores two approaches to information processing and learning in societal safety efforts: (1) stressing specifics and (2) aiming at generalities. It discusses how the two approaches are related to each other and to high-level efforts to achieve societal safety. As background, this paper briefly explores the concept of generic capability – what is it? How is it to be understood? How can it be developed? – and relates it to the interplay between specifics and generalities. The paper gives examples of the factors that may contribute to generic capabilities represented in literature related to safety and emergency management. Examples from continuity management, resilience engineering and high reliability organizations are given and discussed concerning their focus on specifics and/or generalities. The paper also discusses scenario-based learning and the perspective of semantic hierarchies, which explains how a move to more abstract concepts, encompassing the main meaning of more concrete instances, may support the development of generic capability. It ends with a summary and suggestions for practice and the need for further research.
This paper aims to determine the most practical method for implementing a Street-Wide Exercise for the banking industry in Japan. There are similar BCP exercises occurring in Singapore, called Industry-Wide Exercises, conducted by the Monetary Authority of Singapore. This paper defines an Industry-Wide Exercise as a BCP exercise involving only banks, while a Street-Wide Exercise involves banks along with other critical interested parties, such as exchanges, the police, the fire department, lifeline vendors, and government offices. For the past 10 years, major international financial centers such as New York, London, and Singapore have conducted Street-Wide Exercises involving both banks and critical interested parties. However, the BCP Exercise for the banking industry in Japan still only involves banks, a policy that should be revisited. This study conducts an analysis from various angles, including ISO 22398 (the ISO’s approved framework for BCP exercises) to identify potential solutions. Additionally, it proposes a new type of BCP exercise, which is a blend of Industry-Wide and Street-Wide Exercises as an intermediary solution, called a Focused-Street-Wide Exercise, involving a limited number of banks and interested parties.
Responses to medium-magnitude earthquakes are as significant as to catastrophic earthquakes, because medium-magnitude temblors occur as many as a dozen times more than catastrophic earthquakes – at least from the year 1900. In China, local governments are obligated to protect residents against earthquakes that have a magnitude of Ms6.0. The ways in which local governments perform these obligations differ, however, due to obstacles such as inadequate disaster planning, a lack of public earthquake awareness, and a shortage of qualified emergency managers. When an earthquake hits, the hazards that residents are unaware of may arise concurrently, putting thousands lives and millions of acres of property in danger. In short, the response capacity of local governments is crucial to an earthquake’s aftermath.
To enhance the capacity of local government response to earthquake emergencies, the National Earthquake Response Support Service (NERSS) of China started work on training programs years ago. With the cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japanese scientists in the last five years, based on lessons learned from China’s historical earthquakes and disasters, the authors have created the prototype for an earthquake disaster management curriculum, which it has then been demonstrated and continuously improved. This paper reviews the prototype curriculum and its development methodology, presents demonstrative deliveries of the curriculum, and discusses training effectiveness and further improvements. Applying an international emergency management framework and related experience, focusing on local government capacity building, the demonstrative trainings have been proved to be beneficial to local government response activities and the latest amendment to earthquake preplanning in China. Future systematic tracking research of training effectiveness is proposed to keep curriculum updating and appropriate as times change.
As our world becomes increasingly complex over time, we are using increasingly sophisticated tools to be fed and entertained. This increasing complexity has both advantages and disadvantages. Our dependence on electric power is almost absolute and a long-term blackout could become potentially fatal to any region or country hit by it. It has been a rule of life that the intensive preparation to some crisis begins not sooner than after it strikes and causes a big damage. Prague city management did not want to wait to find out, however, and organized an exercise to understand just what such a situation might look like and just how well prepared the capital of the Czech Republic was to manage it. The exercise was designed, run and documented by up-to-date information technology, enabling further study and analysis of results to improve the city’s resilience and to prepare adequate means for mitigating potential damage.
A devastating Ms8.0 earthquake hit Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, on May 12, 2008. A similarly destructive Mw9.0 earthquake hit eastcoast Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The governments of both countries took rapid, effective emergency response measures, gaining invaluable experience and learning precious lessons. To compare detailed emergency responses during these earthquakes and share lessons, this paper uses timeline analysis focusing on the levels of the two earthquakes, summarizing key emergency response measures focusing on emergency command center setup and operation, rescue force deployment and dispatch, emergency victim housing and resettlement, and public information reporting and release based on a time sequence. It also comparatively analyzes and sorts their implementation and timing and studies the similarities and differences of the two earthquakes. This paper also analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of emergency response measures taken by both nations, considering the background of emergency management systems to share experiences and provide references on future disaster emergency response work to improve abilities and progress in earthquake response.
In the flood prone areas of Bangladesh, local people have adapted to flooding. Essentially, properties are protected against flooding by constructing villages in the highlands on natural levees, while using lowlands as agricultural fields during the dry season. It remains to spread flood inundation condition and exempts the necessity of strengthening measures against flooding. This study aims to clarify the status of self, community, and public assistance for flood disasters in flood prone areas of Northeast Bangladesh based on a questionnaire survey. We extracted similarities and differences between local people’s flood responses by comparing our findings to those of a similar study on a 2006 flood in the Sendai River Basin, Japan. The effects of preventive flood mitigation measures such as selection of house location are quantitatively confirmed. Maximum inundation depth and duration for houses is approximately 10% less than that for agricultural fields. The study reveals that both areas have evacuation activities, although factors motivating evacuation differ.
Multiple studies suggest that disaster risk in developing countries is exacerbated by a combination of conditions such as a lack of affordable housing, hazardous location, human vulnerability, government mismanagement and unfavorable political agendas (Quarantelli, 2003; Jha et al., 2010, Viratkapan & Perera, 2006; Horwood & Phillips, 2007; Davidson et al., 2007; Cronin & Gunthrie, 2011; Satterthwaite, 2011). Although this is not a new issue, governments and urban planners continue to struggle to find solutions for safe, adequate and affordable housing for the urban poor. Urban projects and legislation often unintentionally aggravate the situation in these communities (Sanderson, 2000). The pressure to solve the “low-income settler problem” becomes even more poignant in the face of disasters and other occurrences resulting in multiple fatalities.
A well-known approach to low-income communities in high-risk areas is to relocate them either before or after a disaster event. According to Jha et al. (2010) relocation remains one of the most common project endeavors in post-disaster recovery. In San Francisco Libre, a community near Lake Managua in Nicaragua, for example, the local government has undertaken a massive relocation project since 2011 floods that left several coastal families homeless. In this study, we describe the current conditions and challenges for relocated families and discuss efforts by local government officials to provide much needed services on reduced budgets. This research benefits from field observations and interviews with government officials and families from affected communities. Horwood and Phillips (2007) observed that in developing countries such as Nicaragua, relocation projects fail due to the rigid inadequate design of relocation housing and a lack appropriate land and services. Knowledge on relocation practices and outcomes could better inform current practices and improve project development to where it actually provides for low-income families in developing countries.
Throughout history, human beings have been attracted to waterfront living. Today, most residents live in cities, most of which, in turn, are built on flood plains and in coastal areas – areas often threatened by floods. Physical changes to the environment have changed the response of catchments and rivers to heavy rainfall. Despite attempts to control the size of floods, economic growth – especially as experienced in Asia – has led to an explosion in exposure to floods. The most integrated, cost-effective method for disaster reduction and prevention requires that risk be assessed purposefully and adequately. Disaster risk is captured in two major components: occurrence probability and event intensity and reach, and its consequences. Understanding the risks associated with floods in Asia has been hindered by the complexity of flood dynamics in large river basins and in existing or unreliable datasets. With calculation power increasingly available, the development of flexible modeling systems and the appearance of new datasets, so-called probabilistic flood models can now be developed for large areas to quantify risks. A flexible modeling framework has been developed at DHI to better characterize flood plains and complex hydraulic systems in datapoor and highly exposed areas in Asia. The model relies on automated processes merging freely available datasets such as HydroSHEDS, WorldPop, crowd-sourced data available in OpenStreet Map and Landsat 7 and 8 satellite imagery. The combination of spatial data sources provides opportunities to optimize the hydrodynamic model domain and to improve the lowresolution digital elevation model. Such methods enhance flood hazard information conventionally derived from deterministic models by taking a full probabilistic approach considering source loading conditions, e.g., weather events and sea level rise, and the performance of existing and planned mitigation measures and failures of control structures such as dykes. With risks better quantified, new opportunities arise for cost-effective mitigation and resilience measures and for the development of novel risk transfer schemes through the use of insurance and capital markets.
The so-called “smart” community try to maintain a balance between supply and demand for economic energy consumption in the future world of increased urbanization and CO2 emissions. In recent, frequent occurrences of disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and typhoons possibly induced by global warming, we should build smart communities resilient against natural and man-made risks. The resilient smart community requires two types of solutions –soft and hard. We propose here a scheme of smart city withstanding natural hazards taking into account disaster information focusing on earthquake disaster information.
Information sharing is a vital component of unified planning among multiple agencies performing varied tasks and activities toward effective emergency response, which promotes effective coordination. Insufficient information sharing and ineffective coordination among organizations during a disaster response creates a bottleneck in need of urgent resolution to effect preparedness. Building a highly effective emergency management information system would help to solve this problem. Modern information technology processing techniques have produced tools and approaches for information sharing across multiple agencies. However, Chinese and international scholars who study the multi-agency unified response systems of various countries have found that such systems are not in practice. This study took a socio-technical system perspective to analyze the characteristics of emergency response organizations and tasks involved in the response to the 2008 Wenchuan (China) earthquake as a case study. Existing problems and possible causes were analyzed from system and technology perspectives to identify possible resolutions to problems in cross-organizational information sharing and coordination that would improve the quality and speed of information sharing and coordination among multiple agencies. The results suggest a basic theoretical approach for the analysis and design of an open, cross-organizational relief management information system that can efficiently and effectively respond to large-scale disasters.
Information blackout may occur in which it becomes difficult to obtain required information because information infrastructures have been destroyed. Infrastructures for providing disaster information are vulnerable in some Asian regions, so it is vital to cover such blanks to minimize damage. Much attention has been given to a method for communicating disaster information to GNSS receivers installed on cell phones and in car navigation systems. Augmentation of signals from quasi-zenith satellite (QZS) are used independent of terrestrial information infrastructures. Information capacity using QZS augmentation signals is low, however, and elevation angles in some Asian countries varies due to satellite orbits, meaning that the methods of the distribution and reception performance of disaster information should be investigated. This study has the objective of formulating a system for distributing disaster information using augmentation signals from QZS, the system prototype. This prototype was designed for large-scale disasters across multiple Asian and Oceanic regions such as Indian Ocean tsunamis. The system’s effectiveness is evaluated in distribution and receiving performance, so the designed message formats and resulting distribution schedule show system effectiveness in of distribution performance. In simultaneous receiving experiments in two countries, common information and area- and country-based information were received, indicating the effectiveness of the system in receiving performance across multiple countries.