Background : Post-operative fluid management after cardiac valvular surgery is very important. In our institute, carperitide 0.0125 γ was started during surgery and oral furosemide 20-40 mg/day and spironolactone 25 mg/day were started at post-operative day (POD) 1 as the standard therapy. Tolvaptan, vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, was started when fluid retention such as pleural effusion occurred. With this strategy, the frequency of pleural drainage was more than 40%. Therefore we changed our standard therapy in February 2018. In this new standard therapy, carperitide (0.0125 γ) was started and maintained until oral intake became possible and tolvaptan 7.5 mg was started with furosemide 20 mg and spironolactone 25 mg as oral medicine usually at POD 1. In this study, whether tolvaptan prevents pleural effusion or not after cardiac surgery was examined. Subjects and Methods : Sixty-four patients were operated during February 2017 and December 2018 were included in this study. Thirty-two patients operated in the period until January 2018 served as control group and were compared with 32 patients for whom tolvaptan was started on POD 1 (tolvaptan group). Results : There was no significant difference between two groups for background, operative procedure, operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross clamp time and fluid balance during procedure. Tolvaptan was given to all patients in the tolvaptan group and in 22% of patients in the control group. Oral furosemide dose (tolvaptan group 21±5 mg/day, control group 31±20 mg/day, p＝0.0112), and the frequency of patients with intravenous furosemide administration (tolvaptan group 9%, control group 44%, p＝0.0038) were significantly less in tolvaptan group. In the tolvaptan group, intravenous furosemide administrated only once in all patients, whereas the frequency of intravenous furosemide administration was 1-32 times, average 6.6 times in control group. Tolvaptan was stopped within 1 week because of too much urination in two patients and the elevation of liver enzyme in two patients without any adverse effects. Post-operative urination volume until POD 5 did not differ. In both groups, body weight increased at POD 1 and 2 and returned to pre-operative weight at POD 3. Pleural effusion was significantly less in the tolvaptan group at POD 3 (tolvaptan group : none 66%, small amount 22%, moderate amount 3%, drain tube inserted 9%, control group : none 16%, small amount 34%, moderate amount 13%, drain tube inserted 38%, p＝0.0003), at POD 7 (tolvaptan group : none 72%, small amount 28%, vs., control group : none 47%, small amount 19%, moderate amount 22%, drain tube inserted 13%, p＝0.0041) and at discharge (tolvaptan group : none 94%, small amount 6%, vs., control group : none 69%, small amount 22%, moderate amount 9%, p＝0.0301). The frequency of pleural drainage was also less in the tolvaptan group (tolvaptan group 9.4%, control group 44%, p＝0.0038). Conclusion : After cardiac valvular surgery, tolvaptan started at POD 1 is very effective to reduce the frequency of pleural effusion and pleural drainage, and careful checking for too much urination and the elevation of liver enzymes is mandatory.
A 63-year old man was referred to our hospital with dyspnea on exertion and palpitation. An echocardiogram disclosed aortic stenosis and regurgitation, mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation. During cardiac catheterization, the right coronary ostium could not be cannulated, by coincidence, showed ventricular outpouching. Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT showed the partition wall isolating the right coronary ostium and the left ventricular outpouching in the subaortic valve area. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement after resection of the rudimentary right coronary cusp, and we resected the outpouching and closed the orifice with mattress sutures from the inside of the LV and the outside. Histopathology demonstrated that the resected outpouching was congenital fibrous left ventricular diverticulum.
A diagnosis of active aortic valve endocarditis was made in a 52-year-old man who presented with fever and edema. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. The infection was treated successfully using antibiotics and dental care, but a mobile vegetation-like structure on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation, mainly due to aortic annulus dilatation, remained and required surgery. During the surgical procedure, the aortic valve leaflets were seen to be almost normal, and the regurgitation was found to be mainly due to aortic annulus dilation. Regurgitation could be managed with external suture annuloplasty alone, although a second session was necessary to reduce the annular size by one size. The annular size has been stable for over 1 year after surgery without re-operation of the aortic valve. This procedure not only reduces the operation time but also decreases the surgical stress and avoids the need for prosthetic valve replacement.
Papillary fibroelastoma (PFE) is a rare primary cardiac tumor that usually involves an aortic or mitral heart valve. We encountered a case of a 32-year-old woman, who presented with syncope and was found to have multiple PFEs involving all four heart valves during surgery. The echocardiography was performed and showed two mobile masses near the tricuspid and mitral valves. Moreover, the enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed thickened aortic cusps, which may indicate the possibility of heart tumor. Intraoperatively, we first found multiple tumors at each cusp of the aortic valve, ranging in size from 5 to 10 mm which were excised without injury of aortic cusps themselves. These showed a sea anemone-like appearance and were suspected to represent PFE. We then observed the tricuspid and mitral valves, and both valves showed tumors of similar appearance in each cusp. Furthermore, we found a tumor at the pulmonary valve, even though there had been no evidence of its presence on echocardiography or CT. We confirmed that these masses were PFEs by histological study after the operation. We should keep in mind that PFE can develop in multiple valves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of multiple PFEs involving all four heart valves.
A 65-year-old man with a history of severe aortic valve regurgitation had undergone aortic valve replacement (AVR) via partial upper hemisternotomy at the age of 50 years. At that time, bioprosthetic valve was implanted. Fifteen years after the valve implantation, he presented with palpitations and chest tightness. Examination revealed bioprosthetic valve failure with consequent severe aortic valve regurgitation. Redo AVR via right anterior mini-thoracotomy was decided as the treatment strategy, and the procedure was successfully completed without complications. The patient underwent extubation on the day of the operation. His postoperative course was unremarkable, and he was discharged 13 days postoperatively. In this case, the patient had previously undergone partial upper hemisternotomy (classified as a minimally invasive cardiac surgery [MICS]) and showed only few adhesions in the pericardium, suggesting that MICS could be beneficial in cases involving re-operation.
A 41-year-old man who had a history of suicide attempt by self-stabbing of the chest at the age of 15 and surgical repair of the stab wound of the heart was transferred to a neurosurgical hospital suffering from right hemiparesis. Stroke was diagnosed and he successfully underwent endovascular thrombectomy but postoperative computed tomography revealed left ventricular aneurysm and intracavitary thrombus that could have caused the embolic stroke. He was transferred to our hospital for cardiac surgery to prevent another embolization. Although an emergency operation had been attempted for the large and mobile thrombus, the patient was carefully observed for 4 weeks prior to surgery because of acute and huge stroke with a high risk of perioperative intracranial hemorrhage. After a fortunately uneventful observation, thrombectomy with left ventriculoplasty was performed successfully and the postoperative course was uneventful without neurological impairment. To prevent a fatal embolic event, postoperative follow-up after successful repair of cardiac injury is mandatory.
Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) is a non-neoplastic mass characterized by calcified nodules that was first reported in 1997. It is often associated with dialysis or mitral annular calcification (MAC). CAT is considered a risk factor for systemic embolism, but there has been no report of CAT damaging the native valve tissue and leading to valvular disease. An 81-year-old woman had shortness of breath on exertion starting 1 year previously, and was referred to our hospital with cardiac murmur detected on physical examination. Echocardiography showed evidence of severe mitral valve regurgitation with ruptured chordae tendineae of the posterior leaflet and a poorly mobile club-shaped structure protruding into the left ventricle and appearing to be continuous with MAC. She underwent elective mitral valve repair. A club-shaped calcification originating from MAC was found under the P2 segment, with ruptured P2 chordae tendineae immediately above it and mitral perforation in the contralateral A2 segment, which were likely to have resulted from direct damage by the hard structure. Mitral valve repair was successful with mass resection, triangular resection of the posterior leaflet P2 segment, and closure of the perforation. Histopathological findings of the mass were consistent with CAT, with no evidence of infection or malignancy. CAT may not only cause embolism but also grow while damaging the native valve tissue. It is important to closely follow-up and perform surgery in proper timing.
A 81-year-old man underwent CABG for angina pectoris. The grafts were all patent in postoperative coronary angiography and he was discharged on postoperative day 24. Pericardial and pleural effusion appeared in 1 month after surgery. After pericardial and pleural effusion drainage, we started steroid therapy. However, his symptoms did not improve. We performed pericardiectomy under the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. Diastolic dysfunction improved after the surgery, and he was discharged on postoperative day 117.
A 69-year-old man with type II right-sided aortic arch (RAA) underwent an off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in December, 2017. He underwent an abdominal aortic aneurysm resection and graft replacement in April, 2018. The postoperative computed tomography (CT) that was performed in May 2018 revealed aortic dissection from the ascending aorta to the aortic arch, although he was asymptomatic. We evaluated the native coronary artery and patent bypass grafts by coronary CT. Graft replacement of the ascending aorta and partial aortic arch was carried out on an elective basis and the proximal anastomotic site of the vein grafts was attached to the prosthetic graft. Stanford type A aortic dissection (AAD) after previous coronary artery bypass grafting differs from spontaneous AAD in presentation, management and outcome. We report here a successful surgical case with RAA and AAD after OPCAB.
A 66-year-old woman attended our hospital for ascending aortic aneurysm. She was admitted with sudden back pain and acute aortic dissection of Stanford type B was revealed by computed tomography. We performed replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic arch with the frozen elephant trunk technique. The left pleural drainage fluid turned cloudy white after diet initiation on postoperative day 2. We diagnosed chylothorax with biochemical analysis and stopped oral intake completely, but the drainage increased to 3,700 ml/day. On postoperative day 8, completely thoracoscopic ligation of thoracic duct was performed. The drainage decreased immediately after the procedure. She could start meals on postoperative day 12 and was discharged on postoperative day 22. We conclude that a completely thoracoscopic ligation of thoracic duct for persistent chylothorax after aortic surgery can lead to early resolution.
Acute ischemia due to thromboembolism caused by occluded prosthetic graft after axillary-femoral artery bypass has been reported as axillofemoral bypass graft stump syndrome (AxSS). AxSS usually occurs in the upper extremities and it is rare that it occurs in the lower extremities. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old woman with acute right upper and lower extremities ischemia 4 years after right axillary-external iliac artery bypass grafting. The graft and the native arteries of the right upper and lower limbs were occluded. In addition, the right axillary artery and proximal anastomotic site were deformed. We diagnosed acute limb ischemia due to AxSS and immediately performed thrombectomy. Because we considered the thrombosis to originate from the axillary-iliac artery bypass graft, we disconnected the occluded graft from the native arteries. Six months after surgery, she was doing well without recurrence of thromboembolism. We report here the successful treatment of a case of AxSS that developed in both the upper and lower extremities.
A 71-year-old man underwent a medical checkup at another hospital with principal complaint of chest discomfort, and was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) to have a left subclavian artery aneurysm. The CT revealed a 33-mm saccular aneurysm that was located at the proximal portion of the left subclavian artery. Because of the high risk of surgery, we planned to insert a stent graft into the left subclavian artery. We could not avoid occluding the ostium of the left vertebral artery with commercially-available stent grafts, and so decided to insert a surgeon-modified stent graft, in which the fabric of the distal portion of the stent graft was stripped away. The surgeon-modified stent graft was inserted from the conduit of the left axillary artery. Postoperative course was uneventful and the postoperative examination confirmed complete exclusion of the aneurysm and patency of the left vertebral artery.
We investigated the training system of a young cardiovascular surgeon in Japan. We presented the result of surveillance at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Cardiovascular Surgery 2019, and report here the summary.