A questionnaire and a computer simulation were used to investigate the validity of a critical mass model of rule-breaking behavior with local interaction. In this model, individuals were only able to perceive some of their neighbors’ behavior. The questionnaire assessed attitudes toward and the frequency of rule-breaking behavior, and 887 valid responses were obtained from Japanese junior high school students. Computer simulations based on cellular automata were conducted using the questionnaire data. The outputs of the simulations including local interactions showed strong positive correlations with the rule-breaking frequencies obtained with the questionnaire. These findings imply that models taking the limits of perception into account could be useful for describing real micro-macro relationships.
Although previous studies have verified that perspective-taking differs according to the individuals involved and their relationships, the balance between individual and relationship effects remains unclear. Thus, we examined perspective-taking in families based on the social relations model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). We conducted a triadic survey of 380 undergraduates and their fathers and mothers. We analyzed the triadic responses of the 166 families in which all three members completed the survey. It was found that perspective-taking in families is affected by the family itself, each actor, fathers as partners and all dyadic relationships. The relative contributions of individual effects and relationship effects differed between parent-child relationships and marital relationships. We discuss the implications of our findings for enhancing perspective-taking.