Wide resection of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors of the extremities may require resection of muscles, which correspondingly impairs limb movements. We describe a 67-year old man with a malignant soft tissue tumor of the right upper arm. Preoperatively, there was no impairment of right upper extremity function. The patient underwent wide resection of the tumor and triceps muscle. Postoperative rehabilitation included range of motion exercises, residual muscle strength exercises, and activities of daily living (ADL) exercises. One week postoperatively, the patient could independently perform the ADL exercises. Two weeks postoperatively, the patient scored 2 during manual muscle testing (MMT) for elbow extension, indicating a complete range of motion in a gravity-eliminated position. However, the patient could not raise the arm without bending it. Considering the needs of the patient, we prescribed an elbow extension brace to support the upper limb while being raised. With this brace, the patient was able to sustain elbow extension during upper limb elevation. Three months postoperatively, the patient's elbow joint extension remained MMT 2, grip strength was 28 kg, and the International Society of Limb Salvage and Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 76.7％．Although the triceps muscle was resected, there was no problem with the patient's ADL. However, the patient could not maintain elbow extension in an anti-gravity position while raising the upper limb. In such cases, prescribing an elbow brace may be useful.
Paraparesis is a rare and serious complication following epidural anesthesia. Abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) help with the diagnosis；however, diagnosis is challenging in the absence of MRI abnormalities.
We present the case of a 26-year-old pregnant woman who received combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery. The following day, she developed muscle weakness and sensory disturbances in the right lower extremity, which were attributable to the continuous epidural analgesia with ropivacaine that was used during the cesarean delivery. MRI revealed no spinal canal abnormalities；however, skeletal muscle MRI performed in the subacute phase revealed abnormally high signals on T2 and fat suppression T2-weighted imaging in the right paraspinal muscle below the L3 level. Nerve conduction studies revealed reduced amplitude of compound muscle action potentials and sensory nerve action potentials recorded in the lower extremities. After a 4-month period of rehabilitation, the patient could walk independently with a right ankle-foot orthosis and crutch；however, her right leg palsy and sensory disturbances persisted. Here, we report the clinical course of a patient who developed lumbosacral radiculopathy attributable to ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, we present a review of the literature.