In radiography, when a blurred image caused by patient motion was acquired, radiologists retake an image as needed. However, retaking an image leads to extra radiation exposure to patients and reducing work efficiency. This study proposes the deblurring algorithm for blurred images caused by patient motion in radiography. In the proposed algorithm, we first take a video using an optical device during radiography. Second, we calculate the optical flow between each frame, and estimate a point spread function (PSF) based on the optical flows. Finally, we restore the blurred image by deconvolution processing. In this study, blurred images with the blur width from 1.0 mm to 5.0 mm at 0.5 mm intervals were obtained by using own moving body phantom, and applied proposed algorithm for each blurred image. To evaluate the algorithm, we measured blur area and structural similarity (SSIM) of the blurred images and deblurred images, and compared the values. As a result, a significant decrease in blur area and a significant increase in SSIM were confirmed in each blur condition. These results suggest the usefulness of the proposed algorithm.
The aim of this study is to analyze the maldistribution and the trends in the geographic distribution of radiological resources in secondary medical areas of Hokkaido. The distribution was measured by combining the Gini coefficient (GC), which is an indicator of inequality of distribution, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), which is mainly used to assess market concentration. Data concerning the distribution of radiological resources, such as CT, MRI, radiotherapy facilities (RTF), radiological technologists (RT), and medical doctors were obtained from official publications. CT was more equally distributed, and RTF was more inequality than other radiological resources in 2014. Radiological resources excluded CT were higher degree of concentration than population distribution, and it showed that they were located relatively more intensively in urban areas than in rural areas. During the period 1999–2014, the GC for CT, MRI, RTF, and RT decreased, while the HHI increased. These trends indicated increased equality of distribution of CT, MRI, RTF, and RT and the concentration in urban areas. This study suggested that GC and HHI could be powerful indicators for allocation planning of medical resources with further analysis of the maldistribution of medical resources.
Purpose: This study aimed to verify the resolution recovery for each collimator in the brain perfusion image. Method: To verify the effect of the resolution recovery for each collimator, we evaluated via the three-dimensional brain phantom (phantom) and the normal brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. These data were reconstructed using the three-dimensional ordered subset expectation maximization method (3D-OSEM) (Evolution for boneTM) that was performed with scatter correction, attenuation correction, and resolution recovery (RR). The performance of resolution recovery was evaluated in the two collimator systems (ELEGP and MEGP) reconstruction condition via the contrast value, mean counts, normalized mean square error (NMSE), and regional brain activity. Result: In the “with resolution recovery (+RR)”, the NMSE indicated minimum value with SI (subset×iteration) = 100, cut-off frequency (Fc) = 0.50 cycles/cm. The contrast value in the “+RR” increased 20% for the cortical region and decreased 28% and 6% at ELEGP collimator and MEGP collimator for the central region, as compared to the “without resolution recovery (−RR)”. In the phantom study, the error of the brain activity using MEGP collimator at the temporal lobe and sub-lobar decreased 15%, compared with ELEGP collimator in the + RR. In the clinical study, the error of the regional brain activity using MEGP collimator in the “+RR” increased from 3% to 8%, compared with “−RR”. Discussion: The accurate resolution recovery was obtained at SI = 100 and Fc = 0.50 cycles/cm. The contrast value and regional brain activity at the central region decreased due to incomplete resolution recovery by use of ELEGP collimator.
The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector. The calculated values were overestimated as compared to the values measured using the NaI scintillation survey meter and the high-purity germanium detector. However, it could limit the decontamination area. By simulating the activation range, we were able to minimize the concrete core sampling. Finally, the appropriate range of radioactivated area in the cyclotron vault room was decontaminated based on the results of the calculation. After decontamination, the radioactive concentration was below the detection limit value in all areas inside the cyclotron vault room. By these procedures, the decommissioning process of the cyclotron vault room was more efficiently performed.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of vessel visibility and radiation dose using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) method with low tube voltage in coronary computed tomography angiography (c-CTA). Methods: We performed electrocardiogram-gated scan of 2.0-mm diameter simulated vessel in the center of the cardiac phantom by the use of a 64-detector CT scanner. Reference CNR was calculated from the target coronary CT number (CTnumberA; 350 Hounsfield units [HU]), epicardial fat CT number (CTnumberB; -100 HU), and target epicardial fat standard deviation (SD) number (SDB; 25 HU) at the 120 kV. We obtained the tube current at low tube voltage (100 and 80 kV) to perform the similar reference CNR at 120 kV. The full widths at half maximum from axial images were evaluated with quantitative evaluation and three types of visualizations of the vessel phantom were evaluated with the qualitative evaluations. Results: CTnumberA of 100 and 80 kV were increased by 26% and 50%, respectively, compared with 120 kV (P<0.01). SDB was also increased by a similar ratio (P<0.01). CTDIvol of 100 and 80 kV were decreased by 39% and 51%, respectively, compared with 120 kV (P<0.05). There were no significant voltage differences among three tubes in quantitative and qualitative evaluations at the same CNR (P> 0.05). Conclusion: In this phantom study, these results show that the CNR method with low tube voltage achieves radiation dose reduction without decreasing the image quality.
The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of the general X-ray radiography are defined by the absorbed dose of air at the entrance surface with backscattered radiation from a scattering medium. Generally, the entrance surface dose of the general X-ray radiography is calculated from measured air kerma of primary X-ray multiplied by a backscatter factor (BSF). However, the BSF data employed at present used water for scattering medium, and was calculated based on the water-absorbed dose by incident primary photons and backscattered photons from the scattering medium. In the calculation of air dose at the entrance surface defined in DRLs, there are no theoretical consistencies for using BSF based on water dose, and this may be a cause of calculation error. In this paper, we verified the difference in BSF by the difference in the scattering medium and by the difference in the objective dose by means of the Monte Carlo simulation. In this calculation, the scattering medium was set as water and the soft-tissue, and the objective dose was set as air dose, water dose, soft-tissue dose, and skin dose. The difference in BSF calculated by the respective combination was at most about 1.3% and was less than 1% in most cases. In conclusion, even if the entrance surface dose defined by DRLs of general X-ray radiography is calculated using BSF, which set both the scattering medium and the object substance of the absorbed dose as water, a so big error doesn’t show.
Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance. Therefore, we converted all the images from JSRT standard digital image database to DICOM format followed by the conversion of the pixel values to P-value using an original program developed by ourselves. Consequently, JSRT standard digital image database has been modified so that the visual consistency of images is maintained among different luminance displays.