The technique of jaw tracking can be used in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, jaw tracks apertures of the multi leaf collimator (MLC) during irradiation. It is reported that dose variation is occurred by the changing accuracy of MLC position in VMAT and IMRT. Though jaw moves dynamically in the irradiation by using this technique, the influence of the jaw position accuracy on dose variation is not examined. The purpose of this study is to verify the influence of jaw position accuracy on dose variation in VMAT using jaw tracking. We appended intentional errors on jaw position in digital image communication in medicine-radiation therapy (DICOM-RT) plans created using jaw tracking technique. These plans were irradiated on the phantom that was inserted ion chamber, and we measured dose variation by changing the intentional error. The dose variation in planning target volume (PTV) was enlarged by increasing the error, and agreed with the variation of a collimator scatter factor within 0.03%. In clinical case of oropharyngeal cancer, the maximum dose variations in parotid gland were 0.179% and 1.23% when the errors were 1 mm and 10 mm, respectively. Dose variation in parotid gland was larger than the variation in PTV and spinal cord because of increasing MLC transmission. The dose variation caused by jaw position error was smaller than it caused by MLC position error. So, we can keep the dose error slightly that is related to jaw position error in VMAT by maintaining jaw position accuracy correctly.
Ray-summation (raysum) images reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) volume data resemble digital radiography (DR) images. Therefore, they have a potential to be used instead of DR images.The aim of this study was to compare the physical image quality evaluated by signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) and clinical usefulness between raysum and DR images. We employed an oval water phantom simulating adult abdomen for image quality measurement. Raysum images were reconstructed from CT volume data using an assumed x-ray quality of 70 keV. DR images were obtained using an indirect-type flat panel detector system. The normalized noise-power spectrum (NNPS) for various same dose indices (DR: entrance surface dose, CT: CT dose index volume) were measured from raysum and DR images. SDNRs were calculated from the results of NNPSs, modulation transfer function (MTF), and cartilage material contrast. Five experienced observers visually compared each pair of a clinical raysum image and a DR image for nine clinical cases (head, finger, pelvis, and foot). MTF of raysum was significantly lower than that of DR. SDNRs of DR were superior to those of raysum for each dose index, by an average factor of 1.24. For head and pelvis images, raysum images were comparable or a little superior compared with the DR images, because the radiation doses of raysum was much higher than those of DR. For finger and foot cases, the raysum images were inferior to DR images due to its lower resolution. Our results indicated a limited clinical usefulness of raysum compared with DR.
In dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the accuracy of delivered dose is influenced by the positional accuracy of the moving MLC. In order to assess the accuracy of the delivered dose during dynamic MLC IMRT, the delivered dose error in dynamic MLC IMRT using the MLC speed control with dose rate change was investigated. Sweeping gap sequence irradiation was performed with constant MLC leaf speed at 0.6 to 5 cm/s or changed MLC speed (4 steps). The positional accuracy of the moving MLC was evaluated from the trajectory log file. Absorbed dose measurements with sweeping field (Field size: 10 cm×10 cm, MLC leaf speed: 0.6 to 2.7 cm/s, MLC leaf gap width: 0.2 to 2.0 cm) were performed. The delivered dose error at each gap width was evaluated according to MLC leaf speed change. MLC positional errors and changes in delivered dose according to MLC leaf speed were within 0.07 mm and 0.6%, respectively, for all measurements. Beam hold-off did not occur under any conditions. We confirmed that TrueBeam can regulate MLC leaf speed below the maximum limit (2.5 cm/s) by changing the dose rate in real-time during irradiation in dynamic MLC IMRT. MLC gap error during irradiation was estimated within 0.2 mm at the maximum dose rate from the results of absolute dose measurements using dynamic MLC irradiation. In conclusion, TrueBeam can use the maximum dose rate for the treatment planning of dynamic MLC IMRT, which has an advantage of shorter treatment time.
It is important to optimize imaging parameters in 3D-double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting cortical micro lesions. However, inadequate parameters markedly raise blurring in 3DDIR MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the blurring and refocus flip angle (RFA) in 3D-DIR MRI. White matter attenuated inversion recovery (WAIR) images as a test sample were obtained by 1.5T MRI with various RFA settings (30°, 40°, 60°, 100°, 140°, 180°, and variable refocus flip angle (VRFA)). Optimal RFA was evaluated using Scheffé’s method (Nakaya changing method) by five observers. The results of average preferences indicated that RFA settings of under the 60° of RFA or VRFA suppressed the blurring in 3DDIR MRI. The yard sticks of RFAs of 30° and 40° were significantly higher than the yard sticks of other RFAs (p<0.01). For detecting cortical microlesions, it is very important to obtain WAIR images with no blurring. Using low RFA or VRFA didn’t cause significant differences of signal intensity between high-frequency region and low-frequency region in k-space of 3D-DIR MRI. Therefore, it is recommended to set lower RFA (under 60° or VRFA) for suppressing blur in 3D-DIR MRI.