Journal of Occupational Health
Online ISSN : 1348-9585
Print ISSN : 1341-9145
ISSN-L : 1341-9145
Volume 38 , Issue 3
Showing 1-9 articles out of 9 articles from the selected issue
  • Cheng-Long BAI
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 97-102
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chemical-Related Interference of Bile Acid Transport in Hepatocytes : Cheng-Long BAI. Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT)- Recent studies show that an increase in serum bile acids (SBA) could be used as an useful and sensitive indicator in occupational biological monitoring for workers exposed to industrial chemicals and solvents, but it is still not clear how bile acid metabolism is interfered with in humans after chemical exposure. As freshly isolated hepatocytes possess most of the characteristics of liver, the in vitro system has been widely used in toxicology studies. To understand chemical and drug-induced interference of bile acid transport in isolated hepatocytes, three major aspects were focused on in previous studies: (1) uptake of bile acids, (2) efflux of bile acids and (3) intracellular transport. In detail, after being exposed to some chemicals the cell membrane energy system, especially Na+-K+ and Mg++-ATPase, was disturbed significantly. The change in cell membrane fluidity and hepatocyte structure also contributed to the increase in serum bile acids. With regard to chemical-induced interference with efflux and intracellular transport of bile acids, however, some inconsistent results have been reported. Overall, further studies are still required to clarify the mechanism of chemical-induced interference in hepatocytes. (J Occup Health 1996; 38: 97-102)
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  • Shinya MATSUDA, Nguyen An LUONG, Hiroshi JONAI, Nguyen Van HOAI, Dinh ...
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 103-106
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A Preliminary Analysis of Technology Transfer and Occupational Safety and Health in Vietnam: Shinya MATSUDA, et al. Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan-Objectives: Vietnamese factories are now in the process of technology transfer. Their actual condition of occupational safety and health was studied cross-sectionally. Methods: Two hundred and forty-six workers in seven factories were investigated by a questionnaire as to their age, educational level, level of vocational skill, working conditions, and occupational hazards. The distribution of these conditions was compared in workers using old technologies and those who are employed in factories using new ones. Results : Younger workers, female workers, and workers with a lower level of education and of lower vocational skills were generally engaged in workplaces with new technology. Working conditions were more labor intensive and more monotonous in workplaces using old technologies than those using new technologies. Traditional occupational hazards, such as noise, heat, and dust, have been significantly reduced in workplaces with new technologies, but chemical hazards have been increased in the workplaces with new technologies. Conclusion: Although general working conditions in Vietnam have been improved along with the introduction of new technologies from foreign countries, there are many problems to be solved. Further field studies are necessary to fully describe the actual situation. (J Occup Health 1996: 38: 103-106)
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  • Takayuki KAGEYAMA, Hideki IMAI, Michinori KABUTO
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 107-112
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A Standardization Method for Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Using Breathing Frequency (the 2nd report) : Efficiency of Assessing Changes in Cardiac Parasympathetic Activity with Posture : Takayuki KAGEYAMA, et al. Urban Environment and Health Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies-Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) provides a noninvasive index of cardiac parasympathetic activity, although it appears to be modified by breathing frequency (BF) without any change in the tonic level of vagal activity. In the previous study, we proposed a statistical method for respiratory standardization of RSA amplitude at supine rest. Although RSA amplitude in other postures provide useful information on cardiac autonomic function or activity, they also appear to be modified by BF. We therefore examined RSA amplitude at sitting rest and that at standing rest as functions of BF intentionally maintained constant (0.180.33 Hz) for 1 1 nonsmokers (5 males and 6 females aged 19-28) in order to develop similar respiratory standardization methods in those postures. In those postures, RSA amplitudes linearly decreased with the increase in BF on a log-log scale, regardless of whether it was paced or nonpaced regular breathing. The respiratory modification of RSA amplitude at standing rest was greater than that at sitting rest, and both of them were greater than that at supine rest. This shows that RSA amplitude in the postures during nonpaced regular breathing can be statistically standardized based on the BF according to posture. Applying these methods to the data obtained from another experiment concerned with changes in RSA amplitude with posture, the efficiency of the standardization was confirmed. (J Occup Health 1996: 38: 107-112)
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  • Da-Hong WANG, Tokushi HORIKE, Hidetsugu MIZUUCHI, Kunihiko ISHII, Li-X ...
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 113-117
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Liver Function Tests of Workers Exposed to Toluene and Toluene/Dimethylformamide at Low Concentrations: Da-Hong WANG, et al. Department of Public Health, Okayama University Medical School-The purpose of our study was to analyse the results of liver function tests of workers exposed to toluene or to toluene/dimethylformamide (DMF) at levels below 100 ppm of toluene [(previous Occupational Exposure Limits of the Japan Society for Occupational Health) ; 10 ppm of DMF] in comparison with those of the reference group in order to see whether these solvents had any effect on the liver at levels generally considered to be safe. Our results suggested that occupational exposure to toluene below previous Occupational Exposure Limits of the Japan Society for Occupational Health lowered serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) activities significantly in males. On the other hand, serum levels of GPT and y-GTP in the female tolueneexposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Median Body Mass Index (BMI) levels and alcohol consumption did not show any significant difference between toluene-exposed subjects and the controls, suggesting that toluene exposure or other unknown life-style factors were likely to have more effects on the difference of serum GPT and γ-GTP levels between toluene-exposed and control subjects. Serum GPT activity in the DMF/toluene-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the toluene-exposed group, and DMF exposure was considered to play a role in increasing the serum GPT activity in the DMF/toluene-exposed male group. The present results that the decreased serum GPT and γ-GTP levels in the toluene-exposed male group necessitate performing further epidemiological and experimental studies to investigate thepossible hepatic effect of toluene exposures at levels generally considered to be safe. (J Occup Health 1996: 38: 113-117)
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  • Shino HOMMA-TAKEDA, Masaru SHINYASHIKI, Yoshito KUMAGAI, Nobuhiro SHIM ...
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 118-119
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hiroto ITO, Kazue YAMADA, Yuji SASAKI
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 120-121
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Joon Youn KIM, Sung Ryul KIM, Young Seoub HONG, Byoung Gwon KIM, Do Wo ...
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 122-123
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hirohiko UKAI, Satoru OKAMOTO, Shiro TAKADA, Shunen INUI, Masayuki IKE ...
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 124-127
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Use of Water-Based Solvent Preparations in Factories in Japan: Hirohiko UKAI, et al. Kyoto Industrial Health Association-Prevalence of water-based solvent preparations in 122 factories of various types (e.g., painting, printing, etc.) in the city of Kyoto was investigated by interview in 1995. The survey showed that water-based solvent preparations were used in 20% of the factories studied and that the leading organic solvent components in water-based solvent preparations were methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohols, among which the use of isopropyl alcohol was the most common. Among glycol derivatives, 2-butoxyethanol was the most frequently used. (J Occup Health 1996; 38: 124-127)
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  • Valentino RIMATORI, Niu QIAO, Domenico STAITI, Nicolò CASTELLIN ...
    1996 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 128-132
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Determination of Pollutants in the Air of Textile Industries: Valentino RIMATORI. et al. Institute of Occupational Medicine, Catholic University -In order to investigate the pollution degree in three weaving and dyeing and in two clothing factories, the authors measured the indigo, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total particulate matter (TP), as well as the biphenyl, ophenylphenol and p-phenylendiamine (PPDA) concentrations. H2S ranged from <0.01 to 1.85 mg/ m3; indigo from <0.001 to 0.042 mg/m3; TP from 0.58 to 3.65 mg/m3; biphenyl and o-phenylphenol from 0.2 to 15.5 mg/m3. S02 and PPDA concentrations were lower than 0.2 ppm and 5μg/m3 respectively. Higher concentrations were recorded during specific operations. The oil mist concentrations in different factories at different heights in the air, ranged from 0.2 to 15.5 mg/m3. Up to date, neither the TLV nor the maximum allowable concentration for indigo and o-phenylphenol have been established, and there are no studies on the health effects of long term exposure, so the risk for the concentrations listed above cannot be assessed. The PPDA concentration in our study was much lower than the ACGIH TLV for 1993-1994. Biphenyl concentration sometimes exceeded the TLV, suggesting the need for closer controls in the workplace. Oil mist concentration in weaving rooms fell within the TLV, except in the weaving rooms where air forcing and air extraction systems were at a higher level: here the concentration of oil mist exceeded this limit. (J Occup Health 1996: 38: 128-132)
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