Journal of Occupational Health
Online ISSN : 1348-9585
Print ISSN : 1341-9145
ISSN-L : 1341-9145
Current issue
Displaying 1-50 of 53 articles from this issue
Issue Information
Original Articles
  • Anli Yue Zhou, Mark Hann, Maria Panagioti, Mumtaz Patel, Raymond Agius ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12311
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study aims to develop a comprehensive list of stressors relevant to junior doctors and will also report findings exploring the associations between burnout and stressors, which include work and non-work-related stressors as well as pandemic-related stressors.

    Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected junior doctors in the North-West of England. The questionnaire included 37 questions on general and pandemic-specific stressors, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory Health Services Survey. The main outcomes of interest were junior doctor ratings of stressors and scores for burnout (emotional exhaustion [EE], depersonalisation [DP], and personal accomplishment [PA]). Stepwise regression analysis was undertaken to assess associations between stressors and burnout.

    Results: In total, 326 responses were collected (response rate = 33%). Of the top 10 stressors rated by junior doctors, 60% were related to the pandemic. Multiple stressors were found to be associated with the burnout dimensions. Fatigue (β = .43), pandemic-related workload increase (β = .33), and feeling isolated (β = .24) had the strongest associations with EE, whereas fatigue (β = .21), uncertainty around COVID-19 information (β = .22) and doing unproductive tasks (β = .17) had the strongest associations with DP. Working beyond normal scope due to COVID-19 (β = −.26), not confident in own ability (β = −.24) and not feeling valued (β = −.20) were found to have the strongest associations with PA.

    Conclusions: Junior doctors experience a combination of general stressors and additional stressors emerging from the pandemic which significantly impact burnout. Monitoring these stressors and targeting them as part of interventions could help mitigating burnout in junior doctors.

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  • Takashi Sunami, Ryuhei So, Hironobu Ishii, Eiji Sadashima, Takefumi Ue ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12312
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention (BI) program to record daily drinking among people with problem drinking in workplace settings.

    Methods: A two-armed, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial were conducted at six workplaces in Japan. After obtaining written consent to participate in the study, workers with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8 or higher were randomly assigned into two groups. The participants allocated to the intervention group recorded their daily alcohol consumption for 4 weeks using the program, while those allocated to the control group received no intervention. Outcome measures included the amount of alcohol consumption in past 7 days using the Timeline Follow-Back method in the program at baseline, 8th week, and 12th week and written AUDIT score at baseline and 12th week.

    Results: Hundred participants were assigned to either the intervention group (n = 50) or control group (n = 50). The results of two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed a statistically significant interaction between the group and the week factors in the two primary outcomes (number of alcohol-free days, total drinks) and secondary outcomes (AUDIT score) (p = .04, .02, and .03, respectively). The between-group effect sizes (Hedges' g; 95% CI) of the outcomes at 12th week were 0.53; 0.13-0.93 (total drinks), 0.44; 0.04-0.84 (AUDIT score), 0.43; 0.03-0.83 (number of alcohol-free days).

    Conclusions: The web-based BI program for problem drinking was considered to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and the AUDIT score in workplace settings.

    Editor's pick

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  • Makoto Okawara, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Seiichiro Tateishi, Ayako Hino, May ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12313
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism among workers in Japan.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study using data obtained from an internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response “I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled.” The fraction of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A fractional logit model was used for analysis to treat bounded data.

    Results: Of the 27 036 participants, 17 526 (65%) were workers who did not require routine medical care, 8451 (31%) were using medical care as scheduled, and 1059 (4%) experienced interrupted medical care. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of sickness presenteeism was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.04-3.89) than those who did not require routine medical care. In terms of symptoms, the highest aOR was observed among workers with mental health symptoms (aOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 5.04-6.20).

    Conclusions: This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.

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  • Stijn Keyaerts, Lode Godderis, Ellen Delvaux, Liesbeth Daenen
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12314
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Knowledge is lacking on the interaction between fear of movement (FOM) and work-related physical and psychosocial factors in the development and persistence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 305 healthcare workers from several Belgian hospitals filled out a questionnaire including sociodemographic factors, work-related factors (social support, autonomy at work, workload, and physical job demands), FOM, and MSDs for different body regions during the past year. Path analysis was performed to investigate (1) the association between the work-related factors, FOM and MSDs, and (2) the moderating role of FOM on the association between the work-related factors and MSDs among healthcare workers.

    Results: Complaints were most frequently located at the neck-shoulder region (79.5%) and lower back (72.4%). Physical job demands (odds ratio [OR] 2.38 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-3.74), autonomy at work (OR 1.64 CI [1.07-2.49]) and FOM (OR 1.07 CI [1.01-1.14] and OR 1.12 CI [1.06-1.19]) were positively associated with MSDs. Healthcare workers who experienced high social support at work (OR 0.61 CI [0.39-0.94]) were less likely to have MSDs. Fear of movement interacted negatively with workload (OR 0.92 CI [0.87-0.97]) and autonomy at work (OR 0.94 CI [0.88-1.00]) on MSDs.

    Conclusions: Work-related physical and psychosocial factors as well as FOM are related to MSDs in healthcare workers. FOM is an important moderator of this relationship and should be assessed in healthcare workers in addition to work-related physical and psychosocial factors to prevent or address MSDs.

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  • Sami Salo, Heidi Hurri, Toni Rikkonen, Reijo Sund, Heikki Kröger, Joon ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12316
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Occupational physical loading has been reported to be associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. However, previous literature reports inconsistent results for different vertebral levels. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) at different vertebral levels and the self-reported physical loading of occupation.

    Methods: The study population consisted of 1,022 postmenopausal women and was based on the prospective Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study cohort. The severity of LDD was graded from T2-weighted MRI images using the five-grade Pfirrmann classification. Five intervertebral levels (L1-L2 to L5-S1) were studied (total 5110 discs). The self-rated occupational physical loading contained four groups: sedentary, light, moderate, and heavy.

    Results: The heavy occupational physical loading group had higher odds for severe LDD at the L5-S1 vertebral level (OR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.19-2.92, = .006) in comparison with the sedentary work group. A clear trend of increasing disc degeneration with heavier occupational loading was also observed at the L5-S1 level. Age, smoking, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with more severe LDD. Leisure-time physical activity at the age of 11-17 years was associated with less severe LDD. Controlling for confounding factors did not alter the results.

    Conclusions: There appears to be an association between occupational physical loading and severe disc degeneration at the lower lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Individuals in occupations with heavy physical loading may have an increased risk for work-related disability due to more severe disc degeneration.

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Brief Reports
  • Tomohisa Nagata, Masako Nagata, Ayako Hino, Seiichiro Tateishi, Akira ...
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12317
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of workers being diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and being identified as close contacts of infected persons with unemployment in Japan.

    Methods: This was a prospective cohort study using questionnaires about COVID-19 administered to Japanese workers. A baseline survey conducted on December 22-25, 2020, was used to determine history of being diagnosed with COVID-19 or being identified as a close contact of an infected person. Unemployment since the baseline survey was ascertained with a follow-up survey on February 18 and 19, 2021. The odds ratios (ORs) of unemployment were estimated using a multilevel logistic model with adjusted covariates nested in prefecture of residence.

    Results: Women (n = 8771) accounted for 44% of the total sample (n = 19 941), and the mean age was 48.0 years. In terms of unemployment because of negative reasons, the multivariate analysis showed that the OR of unemployment associated with being diagnosed with COVID-19 was 2.40 (95% CI: 1.15-5.01) and that the OR associated with being identified as a close contact was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.31-3.11).

    Conclusions: There is an association between workers being diagnosed with COVID-19 and unemployment. The reason is not clear, but if the unemployment is unwanted by the individual, workplace adjustment may help prevent unwilling unemployment.

    Editor's pick

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Original Articles
  • Dong-Hee Koh, Ju-Hyun Park, Sang-Gil Lee, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Hyejung Jung ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12318
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight induces the production of essential vitamin D, whereas overexposure to sunlight leads to skin cancer. Sunlight exposure has been measured using questionnaires, dosimeters, and vitamin D levels. Several studies have measured vitamin D in the working population; however, these studies were limited to certain occupations such as farmers and construction workers. In the present study, we evaluated sunlight exposure using blood vitamin D as an exposure surrogate across industries and occupations.

    Methods: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a nationwide study representing the Korean population. We analyzed data from KNHANES between 2008 and 2009. We examined the association between vitamin D levels and pertinent personal, seasonal, residential, and occupational factors. Furthermore, we developed a multiple regression model with factors other than occupational factors (industry and occupation) and obtained residual values. We computed the third quartile (Q3) of the residuals and then calculated the fractions exceeding the Q3 level for each combination of industry and occupation.

    Results: Age, sex, body mass index, year, season, latitude, living area, living in an apartment, industry, and occupation were significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Based on the exceeding fraction, the armed forces showed the highest exceeding fraction level of 0.71.

    Conclusions: Our results present the high exposure groups to sunlight across industries and occupations. Our results may provide a source for prioritizing occupational groups with a high risk of adverse health effects from sunlight exposure.

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  • Natsu Sasaki, Takahiro Tabuchi, Ryo Okubo, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Mayumi K ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12319
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: March 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Association between employment contract (temporary vs. permanent) and suicidal ideation (persistent suicidal ideation [i.e., with onset before COVID-19] or newly developed under COVID-19 pandemic) was examined using a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Methods: An Internet survey was conducted from August to September 2020. The participants’ inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: (i) 20-65 years old, (ii) employees (excluding self-employed, students, retired, housewives, and unemployed). The associations of suicidal ideation with the employees’ factors were analyzed using the multinomial logistic regression model, adjusting for covariates (sex, age, marital status, education, company size, industries, and a history of psychiatric disease).

    Results: Of total 12 249 participants, 72.4% were permanent and 27.6% were temporary employees. The prevalence was 8.5% for persistent suicidal ideation and 3.2% for newly developed suicidal ideation in the COVID-19 pandemic. Temporary employment was significantly associated with persistent suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.16-1.59]; P < .001), but not associated with newly developed suicidal ideation (aOR = 1.10 [0.85-1.42]; P = .457) after adjusting the covariates. Sensitivity analysis showed temporary employment was significantly associated with persistent suicidal ideation only in women. Newly developed suicidal ideation was significantly higher among participants of a young age, employees in drinking/eating/hotel business industry, and those having a history of psychiatric disease than among the counterparts.

    Conclusions: Working on a temporary employment contract was associated with persistent suicidal ideation under conditions of COVID-19 outbreaks in Japan. However, the result showed no significant difference in newly developed suicidal ideation. Further longitudinal study will be needed to examine the risk of being employed on an unstable occupational contract in the prolonged pandemic.

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Occupational Health and Safety In The World
  • Ángel Arturo López-González, Zoe Manzanero, Hilda María González San M ...
    Article type: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE WORLD
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12320
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Background and objective: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a greater incidence in the most disadvantaged social classes. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of cardiovascular risk in cleaning workers.

    Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in 46.632 cleaning workers (40.169 women and 6.463 men). Thirty-one different scales related to cardiovascular risk were studied (14 assessing overweight and obesity, 5 determining the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, 5 scales of cardiovascular risk, 4 atherogenic indices, and 3 scales of metabolic syndrome, among others). The results obtained were divided between personnel who perform their cleaning tasks in the hotel and catering industry and those in other sectors.

    Results: The prevalence of obesity and arterial hypertension in cleaning workers was over 20% in both sexes. A similar amount was observed in moderate or high values on the REGICOR (Registre GIroní del COR) scale. More than 15% presented metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATPIII (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Program III) criteria, while over 10% of women and 20% of men had a high risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease assessed with the fatty liver index.

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk is higher, in both sexes, in the group of cleaning workers who work in companies other than hotels.

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Original Articles
  • Xin Liu, Weimin Dang, Hui Liu, Yao Song, Ying Li, Weixian Xu
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12321
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Plasma chromogranin A (CgA) may play a critical role on linking work stress to health outcomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between work stress and plasma CgA levels in healthy workers without chronic diseases.

    Methods: The study included 260 healthy workers from EHOP study. Work stressors were assessed by the Chinese version of the 23-item ERI-Q questionnaire. Plasma CgA and catestatin levels were measured by ELISA kits. The demographic characteristics were collected from medical records.

    Results: Among the final 260 subjects including 173 males (66.5%) and 87 females (33.5%), the average age was 37.6 ± 10.6 years old. Effort, overcommitment, and ERI were positively associated with plasma CgA level, respectively (r = 0.267, 0.319, and 0.304, all p < .001), while reward was negatively associated with CgA level (r = −0.237, p < .001). The workers with high effort, overcommitment, or ERI had significantly higher plasma CgA levels, while the workers with high rewards had significantly lower plasma CgA levels. The workers with both high overcommitment and high ERI had highest plasma CgA levels. In the linear regression analysis, after adjustment for confounders, effort, overcommitment, and ERI were respectively positively related to plasma CgA, while reward negatively related to plasma CgA. The associations between work stress and plasma catestatin was not significant. The ratio of CgA and catestatin was associated with work stress.

    Conclusions: Work stress is associated with plasma CgA which may be play a crucial role on the pathway from chronic work stress to cardiovascular diseases.

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Brief Reports
  • Annina Ropponen, Aki Koskinen, Sampsa Puttonen, Jenni Ervasti, Mika Ki ...
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12322
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: To investigate the association of hospital physicians’ working hours and on-call shifts with the risk of occupational injuries.

    Methods: In this nested cohort study of 556 Finnish hospital physicians, we linked electronic records from working-hour and on-call duty payroll data to occupational injury data obtained from the Finnish Workers’ Compensation Center for the period 2005-2019. We used a case-crossover design with matched intervals for a 7-day ‘case window’ immediately prior to occupational injury and a ‘control window’ 7 days prior to the beginning of the case window, and analyzed their associations using conditional logistic regression models.

    Results: We noted 556 occupational injuries, 281 at the workplace and 275 while commuting. Having three to four long (>12 h) work shifts on the preceding 7 days was associated with a higher probability of an occupational injury (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 4.09), and the OR for three to four on-call shifts was 3.54 (95%CI 2.11, 5.92) in comparison to having none of these work shift types. A higher number of several consecutive working days was associated with a higher probability of injury in a dose-response manner. Moreover, increasing weekly working hours was associated with an increased likelihood of injury (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01, 1.04), whereas the number of normal (≤12 h) work shifts reduced this likelihood (OR 0.79, 95%CI 0.64, 0.98).

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that accumulated working-hour load, as opposed to single, very long (>24 h) work shifts, may increase the risk of occupational injury among hospital physicians.

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Original Articles
  • Joonho Ahn, Jongin Lee, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim, Yu Min Lee, Tae-Won Jang, Do ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12326
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Several studies have reported health or safety risk of temporary agency workers (TAW). Since most of the studies are just cross-sectional studies, we intended to identify the risk of occupational injury in TAW, using longitudinal study design.

    Methods: The Korea Health Panel 2009-2018 data were used in the study. For the statistical analysis of this study, we used a panel logit model to identify the risk of occupational injury in TAW compared to direct contract workers (DCW).

    Results: There was no significant difference in risk of occupational injury between TAW and DCW among the overall population (adjusted OR 0.920, 95% CI 0.600-1.411). However, there was a significant increase in occupational injury in women (adjusted OR 2.134, 95% CI 1.092-4.170) and the “19-34” age group (adjusted OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.103-6.825) of TAW.

    Conclusions: This study provides evidence for vulnerable groups such as women and younger age groups in the relationship between TAW and occupational injury.

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  • Keisuke Suzuki, Madoka Okamura, Yasuo Haruyama, Shiho Suzuki, Tomohiko ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12328
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a form of chemical intolerance in which various systemic symptoms are triggered by exposure to a variety of chemical substances. Although migraine has been associated with central sensitivity syndrome, the relationship between MCS and migraine has not been studied. We assessed the frequency of MCS and its related factors in patients with migraine.

    Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that included 95 patients (14 M/81 F; age, 45.4 ± 12.4 years) out of 100 consecutive patients with migraine from our outpatient headache clinic. MCS was defined as having a combination of Q1 ≥ 30, Q3 ≥ 13, and Q5 ≥ 17 on the quick environment exposure sensitivity inventory (QEESI; Japanese version). Central sensitization inventory-A scores >40 were considered an indication of central sensitization. Headache-related disability and psychological distress were evaluated with the Migraine Disability Assessment score (MIDAS) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), respectively.

    Results: MCS was identified in 20% of patients with migraine; however, none had previously been diagnosed with MCS. The MCS-positive group had higher rates of photophobia, osmophobia, visual aura, sensory aura, and central sensitization and higher MIDAS and K6 scores than the MCS-negative group. A logistic regression analysis showed that osmophobia, sensory aura, and central sensitization were significant contributors to MCS.

    Conclusion: We showed that MCS was observed in 20% of patients with migraine, and our study results may indicate a possible association of MCS with central sensitization and hypersensitivity-related symptoms in patients with migraine.

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Corrigendum
Original Articles
  • Kimiyo Mori, Chikage Nagano, Kimie Fukuzawa, Natsuko Hoshuyama, Riho T ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12323
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study examined whether a fan-attached jacket (FAJ) may mitigate the heat strain in hot or humid environment.

    Methods: Nine healthy men engaged in 60-min sessions on a bicycle ergometer (4 metabolic equivalents [METs] workload) in hot-dry (40°C and 30% relative humidity) and warm-humid (30°C and 85% relative humidity) environments. Both are equivalent to an approximately 29°C wet-bulb globe temperature. The experiment was repeated-once wearing an ordinal jacket (control condition) and once wearing a long-sleeve FAJ that transfers ambient air at a flow rate of 12 L/s (FAJ condition)-in both environments.

    Results: Increases in core temperatures in hot-dry environment were not statistically different between control and FAJ; however, that in the warm-humid environment were significantly different between control and FAJ (0.96 ± 0.10°C and 0.71 ± 0.11°C in rectal temperature, P < .0001; and 0.94 ± 0.09°C and 0.61 ± 0.09°C in esophageal temperature, P < .0001). Changes in heart rate were different between control and FAJ in both environments (62 ± 3 bpm and 47 ± 7 bpm, P < .0001 in hot-dry environment; and 61 ± 3 bpm and 46 ± 5 bpm, P < .0001 in the warm-humid environment) and decrease of %weight change was different in hot-dry environment (1.59 ± 0.12% and 1.25 ± 0.05%, P = .0039), but not in the warm-humid environment.

    Conclusions: Wearing a FAJ may mitigate heat strain both in hot or humid environments.

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  • Sihao Lin, Cheng Chung Tsai, Xudong Liu, Zhenyi Wu, Xianzhe Zeng
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12330
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study is to evaluate the efficacy of participatory ergonomic (PE) intervention on musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and work ability among young dental professionals in China.

    Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trail was conducted during 2015-2016. Twenty-nine departments from five hospitals in the South of China were randomized into intervention (14 departments) and control (15 departments), with individuals of 125 and 138 dental professionals, respectively. Main participatory ergonomic interventions involved work posture, repetitive motions, tool usage, work break relaxation and work time re-arrangement with total 235 ergonomic changes in the trail. Individual ergonomic risk exposure was assessed by investigator's observation using quick exposure check (QEC). Work ability index (WAI) and MSDs were collected by questionnaires at baseline, and every 3 months during the 1-year follow-up.

    Results: Follow-up rate was 91% and 96% for the intervention and control group, respectively. Significant reductions in ergonomic risk exposure and MSD prevalence on six anatomic sites were found in the PE group during the different follow-up stages. WAI scores improved by 1.1 (95% CI 0.43, 1.89) after the 9-month intervention. Compared to the control, the PE participants significantly reduced MSDs on neck (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.03) and wrists/hands (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.21), marginally increased WAI scores by 0.53 (95% CI: −0.02, 1.56) due to the interventions.

    Conclusion: PE intervention is effective in reducing ergonomic risk exposure and MSDs on neck and wrists/hands among young dental professionals. PE ought to be offered in the early dental career for preventing MSDs.

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  • Michael Rosander, Morten Birkeland Nielsen
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12327
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate the reciprocal associations between tiredness at work (TAW) and exposure to bullying behaviors and to determine the role of conflict management climate (CMC) as a moderator of these associations.

    Methods: A two-wave national probability sample of employees in Sweden (18 months between waves, 921 participated at both waves) measuring TAW, workplace bullying, and CMC. Structural equation modelling was used to test four hypotheses about the longitudinal associations between feeling tired at work and bullying, and CMC as a moderator for the two directions.

    Results: In the analyses of cross-lagged effects, tiredness was significantly associated with an increase in subsequent bullying (β = 0.08, P = .01). Exposure to bullying was not associated with changes in tiredness. CMC moderated the association between tiredness and subsequent bullying (β = −0.13, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.08]), showing an increased risk of exposure to bullying behaviors following tiredness when CMC was low and decreased risk when CMC was high.

    Conclusions: TAW is a risk factor for subsequent bullying. Finding ways to help employees to reduce tiredness not only will help them perform better at work but also reduce the risk of them becoming targets of bullying. A strong CMC can act as a buffer if a tired person provoke aggression from co-workers.

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  • Ryutaro Matsugaki, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Ayako Hino, Keiji Muramatsu, Tom ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12329
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between frequency of working from home and low back pain (LBP), considering the quality of work environment.

    Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional internet-based survey. Of 33 302 respondents, data from 12 774 desk workers were retained for analysis. We used a 0-10 numerical rating scale to assess LBP. Work environment was assessed using five subjective questions. Mixed-effects logistic regression nested by city level was used to analyze the relationship between frequency of working from home and LBP, stratified by work environment condition.

    Results: The prevalence of LBP was 21.0%. Among those reporting a poor work environment, as opposed to almost never working from home, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) of LBP were as follows: working from home less than 1 day per week: OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.89-1.76, p = .190; 2-3 days per week: OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.16-2.16, p = .004; and 4 or more days per week: OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.38-2.40, p < .001. By contrast, among those reporting a good work environment, the OR of LBP did not increase as the frequency of working from home increased.

    Conclusions: The relationship between LBP and frequency of working from home was found to vary with the quality of the work environment; more specifically, LBP was associated with frequency of teleworking in a poor work environment. This study suggests that employers should give more support to their employees in promoting a good work environment to prevent LBP. (Words: 240/250).

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  • Kanami Tsuno, Akihito Shimazu, Katerine Osatuke, Kyoko Shimada, Emiko ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12332
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the eight-item CREW Civility Scale which measures workplace civility norms and compare the civility scores among various occupations.

    Methods: A longitudinal study included all employees in a social care organization (N = 658) and a cross-sectional study included all civil servants in one city (N = 3242) in Japan. Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Construct validity was assessed through Pearson's correlations of civility with other variables. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and 1-year test-retest reliability was assessed by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).

    Results: The results of CFA showed an acceptable level of model fit (TLI =0.929; CFI =0.949; and SRMR =0.034). CREW Civility Scale scores were significantly positively correlated with supervisor support, co-worker support, and work engagement, while significantly negatively correlated with incivility, workplace bullying, intention to leave, and psychological distress, which were consistent with our hypotheses. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 and ICC was 0.52. Younger, high-educated, and managerial employees and, childminder/nursery staff reported higher civility. High school graduates and respondents who did not graduate from high school, part-time employees, nurses, paramedical staff, and care workers reported lower civility.

    Conclusions: The Japanese version of the CREW Civility scale is a reliable, valid measure of civility, appropriate for Japanese workplaces as well as for use in multi-national studies alongside other existing versions of this scale in English, Portuguese and Farsi.

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Brief Reports
  • Naoko Inoue, Mitsutoshi Takaya
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12333
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: A simple check test method was designed to confirm whether a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) filter for formaldehyde can be used to measure other compounds.

    Methods: Sample mixtures containing the same concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were spiked to the DNPH-filter, extracted, and then measured using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The amounts of DNPH-derivatives versus the amounts of spiked samples were then plotted.

    Results: When the amount of DNPH << the total amount of spiked samples, the amount of DNPH-derivatives was formaldehyde > acetaldehyde >> acetone. This order corresponded to the relative rate constants for the reaction. Therefore, this study confirmed that acetone was not collected at the formaldehyde sampling rate.

    Conclusions: This check test easily measured the reaction rate order and can be used as a simple test to determine whether other samples can be measured by the analytical methods used for the specified sample.

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Original Articles
  • Shinya Yamaguchi, Miho Sato, Naomi Sumi, Yoichi M. Ito, Peter C. Winwo ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12325
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Shift-work nurses are at a higher risk of inadequate recovery from fatigue and developing maladaptive fatigue with significant health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor fatigue and recovery levels with a reliable scale. We investigated psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery scale (OFER-J) for shift-work nurses.

    Methods: Japanese shift-work nurses responded to self-administered questionnaires at baseline (n = 942) and one month later (n = 334). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted to verify the structural validity and the correlation analysis and one-way analysis of variance were conducted to test the construct and discriminative validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and smallest detectable change (SDC) were calculated to assess reliability.

    Results: The CFA showed high correlations between the factors and whilst the goodness-of-fit of the three-factor model was suboptimal, it was in an acceptable range. Most modifications included the error covariance of the Acute Fatigue (AF) and Intershift Recovery (IR) items. The EFA showed that Chronic Fatigue (CF) and AF were not clearly separated, indicating that the two AF items dropped out. Construct and discriminative validity were also well indicated. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.75-0.85. Only CF showed sufficient reproductivity (ICC = 0.74). The SDC for CF, AF, and IR was 14.0, 17.1, and 18.7, respectively.

    Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the OFER-J were verified as acceptable for shift-work nurses. The OFER-J could contribute to a data-based approach to fatigue management in nursing management practice.

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  • Chihiro Watanabe, Yusuke Konno, Ayako Hino, Masako Nagata, Keiji Muram ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12331
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: This study examined the association between increased alcohol consumption and telecommuting, comparing employees who expressed a preference for telecommuting and those who did not.

    Methods: We conducted an internet monitor survey. Responses from 20 395 of the 33 302 participants were included in the final sample. Participants were asked about their desire for and frequency of telecommuting, and about changes in alcohol consumption under the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.

    Results: The ratio of increased drinking in those who telecommuted at least once a week was significantly different (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.43, p < .001). The ratio of increased drinking in participants for whom telecommuting was not preferred was significantly different (OR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.02-1.14, p = .002). Since the interaction term was significant in preliminary analysis, stratification was performed. Participants who telecommuted despite preferring not to do so reported significantly increased alcohol consumption, as revealed by a multivariate analysis (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.18-2.00, p < .001). Participants who expressed a preference for telecommuting showed no such increase (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, p = .074).

    Conclusions: Under the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting that involves a mismatch with employee preference for way of working may be a new risk factor for problematic drinking.

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Brief Reports
  • Shuhei Izawa, Nanako Nakamura-Taira, Toru Yoshikawa, Rie Akamatsu, Hir ...
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12334
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation and impaired social interaction could be the factors that cause mental health problems. This study investigated the association between conversation time in daily life and mental health among Japanese employees.

    Methods: In August 2021, a web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Japanese employees. Weekly conversation time was assessed in four domains (family members, friends, someone in the workplace, and others), and mental health was assessed using the Japanese version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6 scale). Weekly total conversation time was calculated, and participants were assigned to one of the four conversation time categories based on quantile values to investigate the associations with poor mental health (K6 ≥ 13).

    Results: The logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with short conversation times (<3.5 h per week) had poorer mental health compared to those with long conversation times (> 21.0 h per week), even after adjusting for confounders (OR = 2.48 [95% CI 1.31-4.71]). For the exploratory analyses of conversation time for each domain, the associations of short conversation time in the workplace with poor mental health was most robust (OR =2.02 [95% CI 1.13-3.63]).

    Conclusions: Japanese employees with conversation time of <3.5 h per week (i.e., 30 min per day) had poor mental health. During the COVID-19 pandemic, people have largely limited opportunities to have conversations with others, but a certain level of conversation time might be required to maintain mental health.

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  • Kazuhiro Watanabe, Akiomi Inoue, Hisashi Eguchi, Noboru Iwata, Yuko Od ...
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12335
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: This study aimed to obtain suggestions for new organizational-level item pools that companies could utilize to accomplish management philosophy and mission statements in the context of survey and work environment improvements for the national Stress Check Program.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using unsupervised learning. A large amount of text data related to management philosophy and mission statements were collected, that is, management messages described on the websites of all companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. For the main analysis, topic modeling was performed on the nouns from the management messages using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to build a model consisting of 10 latent topics, each represented by a group of the 10 most frequently reoccurring nouns. Each group of nouns was qualitatively summarized based on the topic model.

    Results: In total, 22 524 nouns were extracted from the management messages of 3575 companies. A topic model consisting of 10 latent topics was constructed using the LDA. The suggestion for new item pools included new technologies, business plans/strategies, company shareholders, health/happiness/wealth, profits/sales, development of society, a sustainable society, safety and security, customer/consumer satisfaction, corporate social responsibility, fairness, transparency, and human rights.

    Conclusion: The suggestions for potential item pools were derived from management philosophy and mission statement that are not covered in the existing survey. The suggestions could be useful for motivating employers to implement work environment improvement. Future studies need to make definite items and investigate whether they correlate to job stressors and mental health among workers.

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Original Articles
  • Juho Sim, Byungyoon Yun, Jin-Ha Yoon, Jiho Lee, Juyeon Oh, Ara Cho, Su ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12336
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: A rest time of less than 11 h taken by a shift worker between shifts is defined as quick return (QR). QR is shown to decrease sleep time by virtue of decreasing rest time, diminishing sleepiness and exhaustion, and increasing the number of sick days taken by employees. Therefore, in this multicenter retrospective study, the association between QR and the incidence of insomnia was established using the night-shift questionnaire from the Korean Workers Health Examination-Common Data Model.

    Methods: Three hospitals collected the night-shift profiles and baseline demographic data of 33 669 workers between January 2015 and December 2017. The most recent date of examination was used for participants who had been examined multiple times at the same institution. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The pooled ORs were estimated using combined results from the three institutions.

    Results: The proportion of men was higher than that of women in the QR group at each institution. The pooled ORs were computed using combined data from the three institutions. Workers who reported a QR had the highest risk of sleeplessness (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.31) compared to those workers who reported a slow return, after adjusting for possible confounders.

    Conclusions: A substantial correlation was established between QR and insomnia using the CDM approach and data from multiple centers. This study may serve as a foundation for developing guidelines to enhance the health of shift workers and prevent occupational accidents.

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  • Masayoshi Zaitsu, Takumi Takeuchi, Masaaki Zaitsu, Akiko Tonooka, Tosh ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12340
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: July 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: We sought to examine occupational disparities in tumor grade and cytosolic expression of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) among renal cell cancer (RCC) patients.

    Methods: This retrospective study included 318 RCC patients with complete information on occupation and pathology in Kanagawa Cancer Registry (KCR). Longest-held occupations were grouped into manual workers (e.g., manufacturing, construction) versus “others.” Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for high-grade histology were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for age and sex. We also examined a sub-sample of 74 low-grade RCC inpatients to estimate the OR for positive cytosolic HMGB1 expression in manual workers, adjusting for age, sex, and other available covariates.

    Results: High-grade tumors were more prevalent in manual workers compared to other occupations: 23.0% (14/61) versus 10.9% (28/257, p = .01) with an adjusted OR of 2.28 (95% CI, 1.11-4.69). In the sub-sample of low-grade RCCs, positive cytosolic HMGB1 expression was more prevalent in manual workers compared to other occupations: 71.4% (10/14) versus 38.3% (23/60, p = .03) with a sex- and age-adjusted OR of 3.76 (95% CI, 1.03-13.7).

    Conclusions: Manual workers are associated with increased risks of high-grade renal cell tumors and cytosolic HMGB1 expression.

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  • Toshihide Sakuragi, Rie Tanaka, Mayumi Tsuji, Seiichiro Tateishi, Ayak ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12339
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Although gender stereotypes regarding paid work and unpaid work are changing, most wives are responsible for taking care of the family and home in Japan. It is unclear how time spent on housework and childcare has changed between working men and women during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The purpose of this study is to investigate how working men and women’s responsibilities for housework and childcare changed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan depending on work hours, job type, the number of employees in the workplace, and frequency of telecommuting.

    Methods: A cross-sectional analysis (N = 14,454) was conducted using data from an Internet monitoring study (CORoNa Work Project), which was conducted in December 2020. A multilevel logistic model with nested prefectures of residence was conducted to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for change in time devoted to housework and childcare among men and women adjusting for age, household income, presence of spouse who work, work hours, job type, the number of employees in the workplace, frequency of telecommuting, and the incidence rate of COVID-19 by prefecture.

    Results: More women tended to perceive that their time of housework and/or childcare had been changed (increased housework: OR 1.92, 95% CI [1.71-2.16], P < .001; decreased workhours: 1.66 (1.25-2.19), P < .001: increased childcare: OR 1.58, 95% CI [1.29-1.92], P < .001; decreased childcare: 1.11 (0.62-2.00), P = .719).

    Conclusions: The time spent by women on housework and childcare changed significantly compared to men during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.

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  • Chen Jia, Yijing Han, Wenping Lu, Ruofan Li, Weizheng Liu, Jianan Jian ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12341
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study investigated the characteristics of workplace violence (WPV) against Chinese healthcare staff and their casualties after severe physical violence (PV).

    Methods: We scrutinized medical WPV incidents reported online and analyzed information on timing, location, violence, criminal incentives, and casualties following severe PV in China from 2010 to 2020.

    Results: WPVs were mostly committed by young and middle-aged male family members of the patients, especially in the emergency department (49.1%), and mostly associated with dissatisfaction with treatment effect (28.9%) in general. High medical costs (62.5%) were the leading cause of verbal violence (VV), whereas men predominantly committed PV (OR = 4.217, 95% CI: 1.439-12.359) owing to dissatisfaction with the healthcare staff's attitude (P < 0.001). The victims were security personnel in most cases (81.1%). Nurses were generally more likely to experience PV (P < 0.05), while doctors were more likely to experience lethal PV (OR = 4.732, 95% CI: 1.42-15.772), which mostly happened in oncology (P < 0.05) and committed by visitors (P < 0.001). Slight injuries and mortality were more likely to be inflicted by being rejected for unreasonable demands and disappointed with the treatment effect (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions: Medical WPV has numerous reasons, locations, and diverse victims and offenders. Some severe WPVs have serious consequences. Therefore, it is recommended for the concerned authorities to adopt effective steps for appropriate legislative, security, and conflict-resolution measures.

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Recommendation
  • Ali Elghomati, Adham Mackieh, Tareq Babaqi
    Article type: RECOMMENDATION
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12337
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    The objective of the currently study is to point out the weaknesses of some recent researches, which were done about the effects or symptoms of using Touch Screen Mobile Devices on the human musculoskeletal system. In this article, we reviewed the research processes performed in recent 26 randomly selected papers about musculoskeletal disorder to clarify the common weaknesses of these published articles. The electronic database search and reference search were conducted in four different databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. We noticed that none of the reviewed papers had performed the experimental design phase of a scientific research. Additionally they had not validated the assumptions of the statistical methods used in their researches. Therefore, their findings are doubtful. In this article, we proposed practical outlines for a reliable experimental research.

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Original Articles
  • Yoshihisa Fujino, Makoto Okawara, Yu Igarashi, Mami Kuwamura, Ayako Hi ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12342
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study examined the association of presenteeism with experiences of poverty among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study of Japanese workers was conducted using an Internet monitoring survey. The baseline survey was conducted in December 2020, and a follow-up survey in December 2021. Of the 27 036 workers who participated, 18 560 (68.7%) completed the follow-up survey. The 11 081 who reported that they were not in financial difficulty in the baseline survey were included in the analysis. The degree of work functioning impairment was assessed at baseline using the Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun). Households' experience of not being able to pay for food and clothing was identified in the follow-up survey. The odds ratios (ORs) of presenteeism determined by WFun associated with poverty were estimated using a multilevel logistic model. The multivariate model included age, sex, marital status, job type, income, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, number of employees in the workplace, and the incidence rate of COVID-19 by prefecture at baseline.

    Results: In the multivariate model, the odds ratio of experiencing food insecurity increased with high WFun score: compared with WFun scores of 13 or less, the OR was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.43-2.43, P < .001) for WFun scores of 14 or more and 3.26 (95% CI: 2.58-4.12, P < .001) for WFun scores of 21 or more.

    Conclusions: In addition to labor productivity, the adverse effects of presenteeism on social security-related concerns such as poverty require further attention.

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  • Carl Antonson, Frida Thorsén, Catarina Nordander
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12343
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: The Swedish surveillance system aiming to reveal undetected Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) in workers exposed for vibrations is regulated by the provision AFS 2019:3. The goal for the surveillance system is to diagnose HAVS, as well as to find workers at risk for developing HAVS due to other conditions. The national guidelines stipulate examination using at least two out of four hand sensory examination methods (SEM); monofilament (touch), two-point discrimination (discriminative), tuning fork (vibrotactile), and Rolltemp (thermotactile). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical consequence of using less than four of these SEMs.

    Methods: We collected data on SEMs from the medical records of all individuals that went through the specific surveillance medical check-up in a large occupational health service for 1 year. We then calculated the number of workers found with HAVS when using one, two, or three SEMs, and compared with the result from using all available SEMs.

    Results: Out of 677 examined individuals, 199 had positive findings in at least one SEM. The detection rate for these findings was on average 47% when using one SEM, 71% using two SEMs, and 88% using three SEMs (out of 100% detection when all four SEMs were used).

    Conclusions: If fewer than four sensory examination methods are used for surveillance of HAVS, many workers with incipient injuries may stay undetected. This may lead to further exposure resulting in aggravation of injury.

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  • Eiko Goto, Hirono Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hiroko Okada, Aiko Tsune ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12344
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: Presenteeism is gaining attention as an occupational health issue in Japan. However, few studies have longitudinally examined the associations between work- and health-related factors and presenteeism using validated instruments in Japan. Drawing on a theoretical framework, we aimed to examine longitudinal associations between job and workplace factors, health and physical factors, personal factors, and presenteeism among Japanese general employees. We also aimed to use the findings to identify educational factors to reduce presenteeism in the Japanese occupational field.

    Methods: We conducted two surveys (T1: conducted 2019; T2: conducted 2020) in a Japanese food-related company using a self-administered questionnaire. Presenteeism was assessed using a work functioning impairment scale (WFun). We used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between each factor at T1 and presenteeism at T2.

    Results: A total of 2914 employees completed the T1 survey (response rate: 55.7%) and 1467 completed the T2 survey. Thus, we analyzed data for 1467 employees. Of these, 1038 (70.8%) were men and 886 (60.4%) were aged over 40 years at T1. The mean presenteeism score at T2 was 15.06 (standard deviation: 6.22). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that job demands, self-rated health status, dietary choices, and health literacy were associated with presenteeism after 1 year.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that job demands, self-rated health status, dietary habits, and health literacy were associated with higher degree of presenteeism in future. Further intervention studies focusing on these factors are needed to develop and examine effective interventions to reduce presenteeism in Japan.

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Brief Reports
  • Kenta Ishii, Akito Takeuchi, Osamu Nishinoiri, Ginji Endo, Mariko Ono- ...
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12345
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: We aimed to develop a method to determine workers' personal exposure levels to N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) for their risk assessments.

    Methods: The proposed method was assessed as follows: recovery, stability of samples on storage, method limit of quantification, and reproducibility. Glyphosate in air was sampled using an air-sampling cassette containing a glass fiber filter. Ultrapure water was used to extract glyphosate from sampler filters. After derivation with 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride, samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector.

    Results: Spiked samples indicated an overall recovery of 101%. After 7 days of storage at 4°C, recoveries were approximately 100%. The method limit of quantification was 0.060 μg/sample. Relative standard deviations representing overall reproducibility, defined as precision, were 1.4%-1.8%.

    Conclusions: The method developed in this study allows 4-h personal exposure monitoring of glyphosate at 0.250-500 μg/m3. Thus, this method can be used to estimate worker exposure to glyphosate.

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Original Articles
  • Tomohisa Nagata, Ryotaro Ito, Masako Nagata, Kiminori Odagami, Shigeyu ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12346
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: This study sought to examine differences in the economic losses due to presenteeism and costs of medical and dental treatment between high-stress workers and non-high-stress workers using the stress check survey.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2019 in a pharmaceutical company. High-stress workers were classified with the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire using two methods: the sum method and the score converted method. The incidence of presenteeism and its costs were determined using a questionnaire. The costs of medical and dental treatment were calculated according to claims. We compared the costs between high-stress and non-high-stress workers using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test.

    Results: Of 3910 workers, 6.3% were classified as high-stress using the sum method and 6.6% were classified as high-stress using the score converted method. The costs associated with presenteeism and medical treatment among high-stress workers were higher than the costs among non-high-stress workers, whereas the costs associated with dental treatment were not.

    Conclusions: To motivate employers to improve stressful work environments, it is recommended that presenteeism measurement items be added to the stress check survey, and that the methods used in this study be used to calculate the loss associated with high-stress workers in Japanese companies. However, we must be careful in interpreting absolute presenteeism loss amounts because they are poorly reliable and valid.

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Letters to the Editor
Original Articles
  • Hiro Nakao, Osamu Nomura, Mitsuru Kubota, Akira Ishiguro
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12349
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: The Japanese government partially enacted the “Work Style Reform Bill” in 2019. The National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD) introduced an Overnight Call Shift (OCS) system for pediatrician training. We conducted a follow-up survey in 2019 to investigate the long-term effectiveness of the OCS system to improve the pediatric residents' mental wellness at NCCHD.

    Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey for pediatric residents in 2019 to compare the data with those of the previous survey in 2012. The questionnaire includes demographic data, working conditions data, and mental wellness assessment by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).

    Results: The collection rate for the 2019 survey was 94.5% (37 participants/39 eligible). Compared to 2012, there were no significant changes in demographic data and working hours, a significant increase by about 30% in residents who took daytime off after night work, about 10% decrease in residents who scored 16 and above on the CES-D, and a significant decrease in the mean score for depersonalization (DP) in the MBI. Multiple regression analyses showed that daytime off after night work was the decreasing factor for CES-D and Emotional exhaustion (EE).

    Conclusions: The overnight shiftwork system shortened the pediatric residents' duty hours somewhat, and imposed an impact on the pediatric residents' mental wellness.

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  • Kazunori Ikegami, Hajime Ando, Yoshihisa Fujino, Hisashi Eguchi, Keiji ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12350
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Our objective was to assess the effect of appropriate workplace IPC measures on employees' work engagement. It could be important to note how workplace infection prevention control (IPC) measures for COVID-19 contribute to positive mental health among workers. We hypothesized that if workplace IPC measures are adequately implemented, they would have a positive effect on employees' work engagement.

    Methods: We conducted an internet-based prospective cohort study from December 2020 (baseline) to December 2021 (follow-up after 1 year) using self-administered questionnaires. At baseline, 27036 workers completed the questionnaires, while 18 560 (68.7%) participated in the one-year follow-up. After excluding the 6578 participants who changed jobs or retired during the survey period, or telecommuted more than 4 days per week, 11 982 participants were analyzed. We asked participants about the implementation of workplace IPC measures at baseline and conducted a follow-up using a nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9).

    Results: Four groups were created according to the number of workplace IPC measures implemented. The mean (SD) UWES-9 score of the “0-2” group was the lowest at 18.3 (13.2), while that of the “8” group was the highest at 22.6 (12.6). The scores of the “3-5,” “6-7,” and “8” groups were significantly higher than that of the “0-2” group (all, p < .001). The p trend of the four groups was also significant (p < .001).

    Conclusions: Promoting workplace IPC measures improves workers' work engagement, and a dose-response relationship exists between workplace IPC measures and work engagement.

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  • Masanari Minamitani, Masayuki Tatemichi, Tomoya Mukai, Atsuto Katano, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12352
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: Japan has recently implemented screening and support to balance cancer treatment and work. The present study evaluated whether the interest of employers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) affects cancer control in the workplace.

    Methods: Cancer preparedness at work was examined by a Japanese life insurance company contracting 370 000 SMEs. The analysis targeted SMEs hiring ≤50 employees whose employer was aged ≥40 years. The endpoints were performing one or more screening for stomach, colon, or lung cancer recommended for both sexes in Japan and implementing three or more supportive measures from the nine systems listed in a questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to predict these endpoints using other factors.

    Results: The survey was completed from January 5 to 28, 2022 and included 5268 eligible companies. Around half were small enterprises with up to five employees. Screenings were performed for stomach (32%), colorectal (27%), and lung (26%) cancers. Sick leave (36%) was the most common support for balancing cancer treatment and work. Logistic regression analysis revealed that employer's concern was a significant predictor of screening (odds ratio [OR] = 3.59, P < .001) and support (OR = 2.55, P < .01) compared with “not concerned at all,” along with industry type, annual sales, experience of employees with cancer, and employer's participation in screening.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggested that employers' interest was a powerful predictor of implementing cancer control in SMEs. Educational intervention targeted toward the employer could play a critical role in improving SMEs.

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Review Articles
  • Željka Babić, Marija Macan, Zrinka Franić, Sarah Hallmann, Martin S. H ...
    Article type: REVIEW ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12351
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: To review recent epidemiological studies investigating carcinogenic or reprotoxic effects among hairdressers who seem to be at greater risk for systemic adverse effects of chemicals released from hair care products than consumers.

    Methods: A systematic review according to the PRISMA-P guidelines was performed and included studies published from 2000 to August 2021, in which cancer or adverse reproductive effects were diagnosed in 1995 and onward. Data were synthetized qualitatively due to the small number of studies, heterogeneity of study designs, outcomes, and methods.

    Results: Four studies investigating cancer frequencies and six studies investigating effects on reproduction among hairdressers were identified. All were of good quality and with low risk of bias. Only one of the four studies found an increased risk of cancer reporting nine times higher odds for bladder cancer in hairdressers than the population-based controls. Three other studies investigating bladder and lung cancer, and non-Hodgins lymphoma did not find an increased risk in hairdressers. Regarding reprotoxic effects, numerous outcomes were investigated including menstrual disorders, congenital malformations, fetal loss, small-for-gestational age newborns, preterm delivery, and infertility. Increased risk was found for ventricular septal defect in newborns of fathers working as hairdressers. Furthermore, several indices of poor neonatal or maternal health were significantly associated with mothers working as hairdresser.

    Conclusions: Despite the scarce evidence that hairdressers are at increased risk of carcinogenic or reprotoxic effects related to their trade, such health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, preventive efforts to diminish occupational exposures to hairdressing chemicals should be targeted.

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Original Articles
  • Michiko Kawada, Akihito Shimazu, Masahito Tokita, Daisuke Miyanaka, Wi ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12354
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: The current study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS-J), a new boredom scale that comprehensively assesses employees' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to low-stimulus work situations.

    Methods: The translated and back-translated DUBS was administered via an internet survey to 1358 Japanese employees from various occupations. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate factorial validity. In order to evaluate discriminant validity with other work-related, well-being constructs, CFA was conducted, and the square root of average variance extracted (AVE) for the DUBS-J and the square of the inter-construct correlations were compared. Construct validity was evaluated based on the correlation coefficients between boredom at work on the one hand and potential antecedents and consequences on the other hand.

    Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported the expected one-factor model. CFA and AVE supported the discriminant validity of DUBS-J with work engagement, workaholism, and job satisfaction. Construct validity was generally supported by expected correlations of boredom at work with possible antecedents and consequences. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .88, and the results of principal component analysis (PCA). Test-retest reliability was confirmed with intraclass correlation coefficients = .62.

    Conclusion: The current study confirmed that DUBS-J is an adequate measure of boredom at work that can be used in the Japanese context.

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Field Studies
  • Hiroaki Ono, Yasuki Hori, Mafu Tsunemi, Ippei Matsuzaki, Kazuki Hayash ...
    Article type: FIELD STUDY
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12355
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Endoscopists often suffer from musculoskeletal disorders due to posture-specific workloads imposed by precise maneuvering or long procedural duration. An ergonomic motion tracking system for endoscopy suite (EMTES) was developed using Azure Kinect sensors to evaluate the occlusion, accuracy, and precision, focusing mainly on upper and lower limb movements.

    Methods: Three healthy male participants pointed the prescribed points for 5 s on the designated work envelopes and their coordinates were measured. The mean occlusion rate (%) of the 32 motion tracking landmarks, standard deviation (SD) of distance and orientation, and partial regression coefficient (β) and R2 model fit for accuracy were calculated using the time series of coordinates data of the upper/lower limb movements.

    Results: The mean occlusion rate was 5.2 ± 10.6% and 1.6 ± 1.4% for upper and lower limb movements, respectively. Of the 32 landmarks, 28 (87.5%) had occlusion rates of 10% or less. The mean SDs of 4.2 mm for distance and 1.2° for orientation were found. Most of the R2 values were over 0.9. In the case of right upper/lower limb measurement for orientation, β coefficients ranged from 0.82 to 1.36.

    Conclusion: EMTES is reliable in calculating occlusion, precision, and accuracy for practical motion-tracking measurements in endoscopists.

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Opinions
  • Hisanori Fukunaga, Tomohiro Asano
    Article type: OPINION
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12357
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011, decontamination and related works have been carried out over a wide area, mainly in Fukushima Prefecture. In November 2013, the Radiation Dose Registration and Management System for Decontamination Workers was established to manage the occupational exposure doses of workers engaged in such work. The Radiation Effects Association mainly operates the registration system. This paper summarizes existing reports on this system and occupational health issues among decontamination workers. We collected previous reports and related regulatory laws on occupational health management for decontamination workers working in Fukushima Prefecture, summarized the outline of the radiation dose registration and management system for these decontamination workers, and discussed future issues related to their health management. Approximately 100 000 decontamination workers were registered in the system as of 2020, but none showed radiation doses that exceeded the dose limit. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of decontamination workers presenting physical symptoms suspected to be related to radiation exposure. On the other hand, heatstroke countermeasures and anxiety about radiation exposure have been reported as possible issues in the occupational health management of decontamination workers. Although decontamination workers are unlikely to experience biological effects from radiation exposure, epidemiological studies are needed to examine this evidence. Further analysis is also needed on non-radiation effects, which pose occupational health concerns for decontamination workers. The registration system would allow for tracking decontamination workers, providing data for analyzing radiological and non-radiological effects.

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Review Articles
  • Mozhdeh Ramezani, Batool Tayefi, Elham Zandian, Neda SoleimanvandiAzar ...
    Article type: REVIEW ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12358
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Background: There is scattered evidence of the impact of workplace interventions in improving employees' physical activity. This systematic review was performed to evaluate the strategies of workplace interventions and their effectiveness, as reported in primary studies.

    Method: Primary experimental trials, both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs, which examined interventions to increase healthy adult employees' physical activity were included in this review. Studies in English or Persian published between 2009 and 2019 with access to full text of resources were considered. Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library, ProQuest (Thesis) and World Health Organization Clinical Trial Registration Databases and Persian databases such as SID, Magiran, IranMedex, Irandoc were searched. All the stages of review were conducted based on PRISMA. RoB and ROBINS-I were used to assess the risk of bias of the primary studies.

    Results: Thirty-nine studies, with a total of 18 494 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 were RCTs, 17 were non-RCTs. Effective interventions were reported in 15 RCTs and 14 non-RCTs. Four main strategies of interventions were identified, consisting of motivation and support; monitoring and feedback; information and education; and activity. Thirteen different behavior change techniques (BCT) were identified with self-determination theory (SDT) being the most frequent behavior change theory used.

    Conclusion: It seems that a multi-strategy intervention that one of the strategies of which is physical activity in the workplace (Activity), the use of behavioral change theories, especially SDT, may be indicative of a more effective intervention. It is recommended that BCTs be considered when designing physical activity interventions.

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Original Articles
  • Woncheol Lee, Hyeon Woo Yim, Yeseong Lee
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12359
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: We aimed to find evidence of the inflammation-mediated mechanism by which long working hours contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    Methods: This cohort study was performed in 56 953 Korean adults free of CVD who underwent a comprehensive screening examination and were followed for up to 7 years. An increase in blood high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) of 1 mg/L or more at the follow-up visit was defined as an incidence. The average weekly working hours in the past year were categorized as ≤40, 41-52, 53-60, and ≥60 h per week. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using generalized estimating equations to calculate the risk of an incidental increase of hsCRP.

    Results: Participants with longer working hours had a higher incidence of hsCRP. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of incident cases for ≥61 h compared with ≤40 h was 1.69 (1.04-2.75). In subgroup analyses according to sex and the presence of hypertension and diabetes, the risk of hsCRP incidence were highest in the group working more than 61 h in all subgroups, but none of them were statistically significant.

    Conclusions: Working hours are independently associated with increased risk of elevated hsCRP in a dose-response relationship. Excessive long-time work is a risk factor for CVD, and it was found that an increase in hsCRP was associated with the pathogenesis.

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  • Kiffer G. Card, Aidan Bodner, Richard Li, Simran Lail, Niloufar Aran, ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12360
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: COVID-19 has dramatically affected Western Society's relationship with work and contributed to increased worker burnout. Existing studies on burnout have mostly emphasized workplace culture, leadership, and employee engagement as key contributors to burnout. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the associations between Malach-Pines Short Burnout Measure (MPSBM) scores and participant's self reported personal characteristics, financial strain, workplace conditions, work-life balance, and social inclusion among Canadians living during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: To identify the most salient correlates of burnout, Canadian residents, aged 16+, were recruited using paid social media advertisements in French and English to complete a cross-sectional study. Multivariable linear regression and dominance analysis identified the most salient correlates of MPSBM scores. Exposure variables included demographic factors, financial strain, workplace conditions, work-life balance, social support, and loneliness.

    Results: Among 486 participants, family social support (adjusted β = −0.14, 95%CI = −0.23, −0.05), emotional loneliness (adjusted β = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.35), insufficient sleep (adjusted β = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.60) and “me time” (adjusted β = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.42), and indicators of financial security (e.g., owning vs renting; adjusted β = −0.36, 95% CI = −0.54, −0.17; insufficient pay: adjusted β = −0.36, 95% CI = −0.54, −0.17) were key burnout indicators. People with a bachelor's degree (vs ≤high school diploma; adjusted β = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.58) also had higher burnout scores.

    Conclusion: Interventions addressing workplace culture, leadership, and other proximal workplace stressors, while important, are likely insufficient to meet the needs of workers. Our findings suggest that broader, holistic multicomponent approaches that address multiple upstream dimensions of health-including mental health-are likely necessary to prevent and reduce burnout.

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  • Watcharapa Adulyawat, Uraiwan Chokechanachaisakul, Prawit Janwantanaku ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12362
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: This study investigated the effects of neck posture and working duration during each step of root canal treatment (i.e. opening the canal [OC], length determination, mechanical instrumentation, try main cone, and filling the root canal) on neck discomfort (ND) in dentists with <5-years' endodontic experience.

    METHODS: Twenty-four dentists performed a one-visit endodontic treatment of an upper molar in a phantom head model. A video was recorded to evaluate the dentists᾽ neck postures using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI) and treatment duration. The M-DOPAI divides the dentists᾽ neck postures into three categories: acceptable, compromised, or harmful posture. The participants rated their ND using Borg᾽s CR-10 scale every 10 min. and at the end of each treatment step. The relationships between neck posture/treatment duration and Borg᾽s CR-10 scores were examined using partial correlation.

    RESULTS: The number of compromised and harmful neck postures during the endodontic procedure (r = 0.43, P = .04) and treatment duration (r = 0.58 P = .005) significantly correlated with ND at the end of treatment. The number of compromised and harmful neck postures during the OC step (r = 0.75, P < .001) and the duration of the OC step (r = .70, P < .001) significantly correlated with ND at the end of the step.

    CONCLUSION: Poor neck postures and long working duration during endodontic treatment correlated with ND among inexperienced dentists. Neck pain interventions should focus on neck postures and work duration during root canal treatment, particularly in the OC step.

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Review Articles
  • Samantha K. Brooks, Neil Greenberg
    Article type: REVIEW ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12361
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: We aimed to synthesize published literature on seafarers' mental health and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: This scoping review searched four electronic databases for literature on the mental health and wellbeing of seafarers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Results: Fourteen studies were included in the review. Few reported on the prevalence of mental health conditions. Only one compared mental health data gathered during the pandemic to pre-pandemic matched samples, suggesting symptoms of depression and anxiety were greater during the pandemic. There was some evidence that mental health worsened with longer stays on board during the pandemic and being on board longer than expected. Crew exchange difficulties forced many participants to extend their contracts or delay repatriation, often with little information as to when they might get to go home, leading them to feel they had no control over their lives and causing concern about fatigue and the potential for accidents and injuries. Participants described other challenges such as denial of shore leave; concerns about finances and future employment; loneliness and isolation; fears of COVID-19 infection; limited access to essential supplies; and feeling unsupported by management.

    Conclusions: Maritime organizations must understand how best to support their staff in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic and in any other prolonged crises that may arise in the future. Recommendations include ensuring that staff feel valued by their organization; enhancing work-related autonomy; ensuring that communication is accurate, consistent, and timely; and using lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic to inform emergency preparedness policies.

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Original Articles
  • Koji Mori, Takahiro Mori, Tomohisa Nagata, Hajime Ando, Ayako Hino, Se ...
    Article type: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12365
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Perceived organizational support is a broad perception by employees about the extent to which their employer values their contributions and cares about their well-being. We examined the relationship between workplace vaccination opportunities for COVID-19 provided by companies and increases and decreases in perceived organizational support, using a prospective cohort study.

    Methods: This study was conducted between December 2020 and December 2021 using a self-administered questionnaire survey in Japan. In total, 18 560 people responded to the follow-up, and were included in this study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the association between company-arranged vaccination opportunities and high perceived organizational support at the follow-up for participants (a) with low perceived organizational support at the baseline (n = 4971), and (b) with high perceived organizational support at the baseline (n = 6912) were separately estimated using a multilevel logistic model.

    Results: The OR of high perceived organizational support at the follow-up after low baseline levels was significantly higher in participants given a vaccination opportunity than those not given this opportunity (OR 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-1.67; p < .001). The OR of high perceived organizational support at the follow-up after high baseline levels was also significantly highly in participants given a vaccination opportunity than not (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.23-1.54; p < .001). These significant differences remained after adjusting for workplace infection control measures.

    Conclusions: Employee health support provided through a workplace vaccination program can contribute to high perceived organizational support.

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Brief Reports
  • Rina So, Fumiko Murai, Tomoaki Matsuo
    Article type: BRIEF REPORT
    2022 Volume 64 Issue 1 Article ID: e12353
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 25, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Objective: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important factor for evaluating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We recently developed a novel method (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan step test [JST]) for evaluating CRF in workers; its criterion validity has been investigated. However, its association with health risk must be confirmed before its application in the workplace. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association of JST-evaluated CRF with the prevalence of CVD risk among Japanese workers.

    Methods: For CRF evaluation, working adults completed the JST, which comprised a 3-minute stepping exercise and a 2-minute recovery period. Data on CVD risk factors and clinical history were collected through medical certification within 1 year from the date of the JST measurements. Participants were divided into three groups for multiple logistic regression analyses based on the JST values (low, moderate, and high). Odds ratios (ORs) for the prevalence of CVD risk were calculated.

    Results: We recruited 885 working adults (46.4% women). The prevalence of CVD risk in the total population was 18.6%. When compared to the reference group (low CRF), the ORs for CVD risk prevalence after adjustments for lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol consumption status, and exercise habits) were 0.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.63) and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.18-0.45) for the moderate and high groups, respectively.

    Conclusion: An inverse association was noted between the JST-evaluated CRF and CVD risk prevalence. JST may be helpful for identifying workers at risk for CVD development.

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