Blood magnesium concentration is decreased in human patients with inflammatory bowel disease and inversely correlated with disease severity. As in humans, hypomagnesemia is observed in dogs with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE) , however, there are no data on its influence on the clinical condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum magnesium concentration in dogs with LPE and its influence on disease severity and prognosis. Thirty-five dogs with LPE were recruited. Histological severity (mild, intermediate, or marked), canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) , canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) , and overall survival were examined. Serum magnesium concentration was measured using the xylidyl blue method. Hypomagnesemia was observed in 22/35 (63％) dogs with LPE. Serum magnesium concentration was significantly decreased in the dogs with marked LPE than in those with mild and intermediate LPE. There was no significant difference in the serum magnesium concentration between the dogs with mild and intermediate LPE. The serum magnesium concentration was inversely correlated with CIBDAI and CCECAI. No significant difference was observed in the overall survival between dogs with hypomagnesemia and those without it. These findings suggest that serum magnesium concentration is a clinically useful biomarker that reflects disease severity in dogs with LPE.
Taurine and methionine are sulfur-containing compounds, which are essential nutrients for cats. Taurine deficiency, and methionine excess or deficiency have been reported to cause adverse health effects in cats. However, to our knowledge, there has been no reports evaluating taurine content of commercial cat foods and methionine content in complete wet foods and not-balanced foods in Japan. The present study evaluated the shortage and excess of taurine and methionine contents in commercially available cat foods consisting of 10 complete dry foods, 10 complete wet foods and 5 not-balanced foods for provided with complete foods. Thenutritional evaluation was based on AAFCO cat food nutrient profiles (2018) . All complete foods contained adequate level of taurine and methionine, but one complete wet food had excessive methionine. The shortage of taurine was observed in one not-balanced food, and methionine was excessive in four not-balanced foods. We evaluated taurine and methionine contents in mixture of complete dry foods and not-balanced foods. The results suggested that taurine shortage and methionine excess unlikely occur in the mixtures. Because the food rich in methionine had much protein, it cannot be assumed that methionine alone is excessive among all amino acids in this food. Therefore, the methionine imbalance may not occur in the food containing excess methionine. However, since requirement level of dietary methionine is reported to stimulate senescence in other kinds of animals, it is acceptable to avoid the foods contained much more methionine than the required level.
Salmonella are important pathogenic bacteria as cause of disease both for human and animal. If dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated food, dogs can shed Salmonella with feces. In US, surveillance of Salmonella-contaminated wet dog foods were carried out. However there are little reports on surveillance of Salmonella-contaminated wet dog foods in Japan. Therefore, we carried out investigation of Salmonella-contaminated wet dog foods in Japan. We carried out this surveillance following the procedure of procedure of FAMIC in accordance with Pet Food Safety Law. Twenty domestic samples and forty-eight imported samples were examined. The countries of origins of imported foods and samples were including China (n＝24), Australia (n＝14), the United States of America (n＝4), Thailand (n＝4) and New Zealand (n＝2) . We did not detect Salmonella from any samples. However, bacteria other than Salmonella were isolated from one sample manufactured by one company in a domestic wet food, and the bacteria were identified as Citrobacter freundii. Bacteria other than Salmonella were isolated from three samples produced by three companies in the imported wet food, and when these bacteria were identified, two were C. freundii and one was Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Since the method adopted this study was aimed to detect Salmonella, it is not clear whatsoever. But it was possible that other bacteria could be detected by using other methods. Therefore, a more in-depth investigation will be needed in Japan. And producers of wet dog foods should reduce the potential for contamination with Salmonella and other bacteria.