As the aged pets are increased, functional pet foods that provide health benefits to control aging and prolong health span will become more desirable. We previously reported that oral administration of Lactococcus lactis H61 has the potential to suppress some of the manifestations（incidence of skin ulcers and hair loss）associated with aging in senescence-accelerated mouse. In this study, the effects of strain H61 on aging level of dog as a pet food. In a placebo-controlled double-blind trial, healthy various kinds of privately-owned dogs（n＝24）were randomly divided in three groups. They were received heat-killed cells of strain H61（109 cfu level/day or 1010 cfu level/day）or not, daily for 4 weeks. Before and at the end of the 4 weeks,blood and feces samples were taken for analysis of blood parameters and putrefactive biomarkers. The questionnaire for aging level was also carried out. As a result, aging level of dogs was not altered in all three groups. Serum analysis showed that some parameters were altered in those groups, but they were within normal range. Immune biomarkers in serum were not substantially altered by administration of strain H61. In a open test, the effect of fermented milk made by only strain H61（H61-fermented milk）on aging level of private-owned dogs was evaluated. Healthy various kinds of dogs（n＝20）received H61-fermented milk（109 ～1010 cfu/day）daily for 6 weeks. Questionnaire survey for aging level of dos was significantly better after this intervention. Oral administration of live strain H61 would provide beneficial effects on aging level of dogs.
The effects of daily administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12（SSK12）on mouth odor and oral bacteria were investigated in beagles. Beagles given SSK12（SSK12 group n＝3）tablets and those given no SSK12（control group n＝3）were subjected to organoleptic tests of oral gas odor and expired gas odor and measurement of oral ammonia, methylamine, methylmercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide by using a gas detector meter. Oral swabs were cultured anaerobically for bacteriologic examination and were also used for detection of Porphiromonas (P) gingivalis and P. gulae by using a direct PCR method and a PCR method using black pigment-producing bacteria. Oral bacterial count was determined using real-time PCR. Organoleptic tests revealed a decrease in the assessment score of oral gas odor and an increase in the distance at which expired gas odor was detectable in beagles given SSK12. In comparison with the baseline level, the ammonia concentration decreased in the SSK12 group after 4 weeks of administration, whereas the corresponding concentration increased in the control group at 4 weeks. The concentration of methylamine significantly increased（p＜0.05）after 4 weeks in comparison with the baseline value in the control group, but there was no significant change in the SSK12 group. Oral swabs and black pigment-producing bacteria showed no presence of P. gingivalis and there were no distinct changes in the oral bacterial count. These findings suggest that SSK12 can be expected to exert a mouth odor-suppressing effect in dogs. However, further investigation is required for evaluating the effect of SSK12 on oral bacteria.
Body condition score（BCS）is a method that is commonly used in the assessment of nutritional status in small animals. BCS has been recognized as one of the screening method of nutrition assessment by American Animal Hospital Association（AAHA）in 2010. In response to the AHHA 's proposal, World Small Animal Veterinary Association（WSAVA）decided BCS as a global standard. However, BCS is subjective method because of its evaluation being assessed by visual and palpatory manner. Therefore, we built a BCS model for increasing its accuracy. Twenty four dogs with varied on a BCS were used for this examination. The BCS model was made by stacking rubber sheets with different thickness on the molded ribs by resin to simulate each BCSs. BCS assessment was performed by students in the department of animal nursing. They were divided into two groups and one group assessed without the BCS model and another group used the BCS model. The body fat percentage was also measured by using a Body Fat Analyzer for Dogs（Kao Healthlab IBF-D02）. Statistically significant differences were observed between these two groups. Data variability was greater in the group that was not used the BCS model while the data variability using the BCS model was less. In parallel, we also asked dog owners to assess a BCS of their dogs by using the BCS model. Most of dog owners recognized the usefulness of BCS model to grasp their dog 's nutritional status. These results suggest that the BCS model increases the reproducibility of the BCS assessment in clinical practice. In addition, the BCS model is useful for pet owners to grasp their dog 's nutritional status.
Carbohydrates have a large effect on postprandial glycemic control compared to nutrient content. Therefore, if slower digestion of glucose was achieved, which would be inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia. Recently, the mulberry leaf includes 1-deoxynojirimycin（DNJ）, which inhibit postprandial glucose absorption. In human patients, it was reported that the postprandial hyperglycemia was significantly improved after administration of mulberry leaf. However, the hypoglycemic effects for dogs are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the changes in glucose and lipid metabolism after administration of mulberry leaf in healthy dogs. In 6 healthy dogs, mulberry leaf powder（0.5 g/head, DNJ: 0.97 mg/head）was administered with a high carbohydrate diet for 4 days. After 4 days, blood examination results significant reduction in blood glucose level of postprandial 30 minutes was observed in the administered group as compared with the no administered group. In addition, slightly lower trend in blood insulin level of postprandial 30 and 180 minutes was observed in the administered group as compared to the no administered group. However, no significant difference in blood triglyceride level was observed between the administered group and the no administered group. From the results, administration of mulberry leaf might inhibit postprandial elevation of blood glucose and insul in secretion in healthy dogs.