The purpose of this study was to investigate excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC) following three types of exercises used in resistance training. Eight healthy trained men (age=21.9±1.0 yr; height=173.4±5.8 cm; body weight=69.7±6.5 kg, body fat=23.2±1.6%) performed the following three types of resistance exercise on separate days.: 1) bench press (BP),2) dead lift (DL),3) squat (SQ),which consisted of 5 sets and 2 min interval between sets. All resistance exercises were performed to maximum repetitions with loads of 75% one-repetition maximum. Expired gas and heart rate were continuously monitored during the exercise sessions and for 120 min afterwards. The mean values for oxygen consumption and heart rate, total of energy expenditure during exercise in the DL and SQ exercises were found to be significantly greater than that in the BP exercise (P<0.05).The duration of EPOC in DL and SQ exercises were longer than that in the BP exercise, and total of EPOC in the DL and SQ exercises were found to be significantly greater than that in the BP exercise (P<0.05).However, there were no significant differences in total of EPOC between DL and SQ exercises. In the same exercise intensity, it was suggested that DL and SQ exercises increase oxygen consumption during exercise and EPOC more than the BP exercise. The results of this study suggest that resistance exercises to activate muscles of the lower extremity elicit greater energy metabolism in comparison to resistance exercises using the upper extremity.
Hyperoxic inhalation, or oxygen inhalation by a high-concentration oxygen generator at rest, is used as a method for recovery from fatigue for athletes. However, it is feared that the increase in reactive oxygen species generation related to hyperoxic inhalation may cause some disadvantages as well. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyperoxic inhalation affects pulse rate, oxygen dynamics in the blood, autonomic nerve activity and oxidative stress. Ten healthy male subjects participated in two experimental sessions on two different days. Subjects inhaled hyperoxic air (40% O2) or control air (20.9% O2) for 60 minutes in a sitting position, then rested for 5 minutes. We measured arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), pulse rate, autonomic nerve activity, oxygenation hemoglobin (oxy-Hb), deoxygenation hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) during each inhalation, general physical condition (visual analog scale), reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) before and immediately after each inhalation. There was no significant difference in d-ROMs and BAP between the two groups. HF normalized unit (HFnu, HFnu=HF/(LF+HF)×100) was used as an index of parasympathetic activity in autonomic nervous activity. HF normalized unit was significantly higher with the hyperoxic air than the control air (p<0.05), and in the rate of increase after the rest, significant difference was observed between the conditions 25 minutes after the inhalation. These results suggest that 60 minutes of hyperoxic inhalation does not cause oxidative stress, nor effect the balance of parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous activity, and is considered as effective for maintaining the parasympathetic activity as compared with the inhalation of the control air.
Most preschool children in Japan currently attend one of the kindergartens, nursery schools, or certified early childhood education and care centers, all of which have different childcare approaches. In a certified center for early childhood education and care, age-specific and mixed-age childcare is performed based on the circumstance. Consequently, older children may affect younger children.
In this study, we examined individual differences and development characteristics by focusing on items related to lower-extremity functions on the basis of height between four and five-year-old children (toe muscle strength, one-legged stand on a stick, standing long jump, and two-foot continuous jump) in a certified center for early childhood education. The following findings were obtained.
Individual differences were substantially greater in measures other than height, particularly for the one-legged stand on a stick. The majority of children with low motor performance in the five-year-old class corresponded to middle and low performers in the four-year-old class.
Further, excluding standing long jump, there were few children in the five-year-old class with a particularly superior performance to those in the four-year-old class.
These results evince that the absence of children with notably superior performance in the five-year-old class may affect the development of motor abilities in four-year-old children.
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that increase the willingness of athletic college students to participate in sports volunteer activities and the perceptions toward sports volunteering that increase their willingness to participate. The main findings of the analysis revealed the following.
1. Six factors were identified for the perceptions of sports volunteering among athletic college students, including “Volunteer Spirit," “Positive Activity," “Heteronomous Participation," “Use of Sports Skills," “Rewards," and “Participation within an Affiliation." It became apparent that while there were many positive perceptions, there were also mixed perceptions that lack initiative and gratuitousness.
2. The perception that was found to have the greatest positive impact on athletic college students' willingness to participate in sports volunteering was “Positive Activity," formed from perceptions of self-interest.
3. The perception that was found to decrease athletic college students' willingness to participate in sports volunteering was “Heteronomous Participation," formed from perceptions of forced or mandatory participation.
4. It is possible that students who previously participated in sports volunteering where they felt a sense of compulsion or obligation would be less willing to participate in sports volunteering.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the Functional Daily Activity Test scores and cognitive function in the elderly who regularly perform physical activity.
The subjects were 41 participants who participated in a once-a-week health exercise class and completed a Functional Daily Activity Test and a Cognitive Function Test in 2019. The average age of the subjects was 76.71±5.57 years. The data items collected were Physiological tests (Blood pressure), Anthropometry (Height, Weight, Body Mass Index: BMI), and Daily activity test (“Chair rise time", “10 m Obstacle walking speed", “10 m Zigzag Walking speed", “Test of hand working using Golf ball", “4 point touch time", “Grip strength").
Cognitive function measured were “Immediate recognition of word", “Date and time orientation", “Delay recognition of word", and “Figure recognition" using Touch panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale (TDAS).Furthermore, “Agility", “Effective utilization of brain", and “Energy of brain" were investigated using Advanced Trail Making Test (ATT).In TDAS and Functional Daily Activity, a statistically significant correlation was observed between “Chair rise time", “10 m Obstacle walking speed", “10 m Zigzag Walking speed" and “4 point touch time". In the item TDAS, the correct answer rate of “Figure recognition" was low, and the score of “10 m Zigzag Walking speed" was significantly low in the wrong answer group. In cognitive function, it gradually decreased from “Figure recognition", and it was shown that the decrease of “Figure recognition" affected 10 m Zigzag Walking speed among Functional daily activity. It was suggested that combining Functional daily activity such as “10 m Zigzag Walking speed" with TDAS could be a means to early detection of dementia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the process of acquiring exercise self-efficacy (Exercise SE) and resilience in snow sports. The study especially focused on psychological effects of an off-campus snowboard camp that was least likely influenced by other classes. Twenty college students participated in the study. The subjects filled in a survey and answered the exercise SE and resilience questionnaires at the start of the camp (Pre-test) as well as after the closing session (Post-test).Exercise SE was significantly increased in the post test, especially in the students who had no previous experience in snowboarding (9.86±4.52 vs 13.86±4.05, p<.01). Furthermore, the total score and three factors of resilience had also increased in the post test. “I enjoyed snow-boarding as a lifelong sport activity and understood how fun it was" was selected as the item which showed the highest correlation coefficient to the total score. In other words, it became clear that it was important to provide snowboarding classes that students could understand as a lifelong sports activity in order to improve resilience.
This case study investigates, characteristics of time dependent changes in performance and throwing motion, and possible parameters of the changes caused by prolonged periods of fielding infield fungoes. A fungo is a ball tossed into the air by the batter, hit as it comes down, and is used for base ball fielding practice.
One college baseball player, who is an infielder, participated in this study. We carried out 10 sessions of fungo drills with one minute break between each session. One session included a fungo every 17 seconds for 5 minutes. We analyzed 10 throwing motions for each session with the three-dimensional motion analysis.
The characteristic changes over time are as follows. In performance, ball velocity decreased significantly, whereas throwing angle increased considerably. In throwing motion, there is a significant decrease in pelvic rotation angle at the instant of maximum shoulder external rotation (MER) and at ball release (REL), shoulder abduction angle at the instant of stride foot contact (SFC), MER, and REL, the amount of angle variation of forward trunk tilt during the acceleration phase, and the moving speed of the middle point of both greater trochanters during the step phase and throwing phase. There is also a great increase in the maximum backward angle in the throwing phase of shoulder horizontal abduction and pelvic rotation. Furthermore, knee and hip joint angles of the stride leg at SFC, trunk twist angle at SFC, MER, and REL, and the amount of angle variation of shoulder horizontal adduction in the acceleration phase increased significantly.
Based on the above results, the following changes were noted in throwing motion 1) from using the step speed to expanding motion range of joints, 2) to “relying-on-the-arm" movements due to the decrease in the pelvic forward rotation angle caused by the knee extensions, 3) with tendencies for distance throw, and 4) movement changes which may become a risk factor for shoulder throwing injuries.
The purpose of this study was to investigate kinematically the important technical points of side-foot kicks in soccer required to kick it high or low. The subjects were 14 male university soccer players. They performed side-foot kicks to hit targets placed seven meters away fro
When the subjects kick the ball to the high target, the characteristics of their kicking motions were as follows:
1. The ball launching angle was large.
2. The toes of the kicking foot contacted the lower part of the ball, which was close to the supporting foot.
3. The knee flexion angle while kicking was large.
4. The swing speed was high.
These results suggest that it may be important to markedly flex the knee during the back swing to increase the ball launching angle, and kick the lower part of the ball at a high swing speed when performing inside kicks toward high targets.
Through the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteer (JOCV) program, international volunteers, specializing in physical education (PE), are mobilized and dispatched from Japan to developing countries to support PE in schools. From the analysis of JOCV data, it was established that the number of volunteers in the field of sports, and notably PE specialists, has been increasing. It is expected that the demand will continue to rise. Therefore, outcomes should be accumulated and applied in research to improve practices in developing countries and appeal to the significance of the volunteers' presence. However, no study has organized and analyzed previous research. Therefore, this study aims to review previous studies on PE volunteers and examine their circumstances and issues.
To collect previous research on PE volunteers, a search was conducted using CiNii Articles, an academic article search site that includes major databases in Japan.
Consequently, the following three points were clarified:(1) research on PE volunteers can be divided into two types: primary source research and case studies;(2) it is essential to accumulate the outcomes of PE volunteers as research, not only to increase their value but also to understand the situation of PE in each country, and develop support for PE in developing countries after the Tokyo 2020 Olympics and Paralympics Games; and (3) it is ideal to conduct research with university faculties through collaborative projects.