In the present study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were observed for major seedling traits and their growth. The accessions were evaluated for major seedling traits under controlled conditions of hydroponics at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-after germination. Biomass traits were measured at the 34th day-after germination. Correlation analysis was conducted among the seedling traits and three field traits at maturity, plant height, grain weight and 1000-grain weight observed in four consecutive years. Associations of the measured seedling traits and SNP markers were analyzed based on the mixed linear model (MLM). The results indicated that highly significant genetic variation and robust heritability were found for the seedling and field mature traits. In total, 259 significant associations were detected for all the traits and four growth stages. The phenotypic variation explained (R2) by a single SNP marker is higher than 10% for most (84%) of the significant SNP markers. Forty-six SNP markers associated with multiple traits, indicating non-neglectable pleiotropy in seedling stage. The associated SNP markers could be helpful for genetic analysis of seedling traits, and marker-assisted breeding of new wheat varieties with strong seedling vigor.
Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) is one of the most prevalent pathogen that limits soybean production in India. In this study RILs derived from JS335, dominant but MYMIV susceptible variety and PI171443, donor of MYMIV resistance gene in most of the MYMIV resistant varieties released in India and F2 population derived from SL525, a resistant variety released for northern India and NRC101, a susceptible genotype were used to study the inheritance of MYMIV resistance and map the gene responsible for MYMIV resistance. F1s were found to be completely susceptible. F2:3 and RILs population segregated to fit a ratio of 1:2:1 and 1:1 indicating that a single recessive gene controlled resistance to MYMIV. BSA was performed using 144 polymorphic SSR markers. MYMIV resistance gene was mapped on chr 6 (LG C2) within a 3.5-cM genome region between two SSR markers GMAC7L and Satt322 whose size was estimated to be 77.115 kb (position of 12,259,594–12,336,709 bp). This is the first report on linkage mapping of MYMIV resistance gene in soybean. This will be helpful in breeding soybean varieties for resistance against MYMIV responsible for wide spread damage to soybean crop in India using Marker Assisted Selection.
Heading date is one of the most important traits in rice breeding. It is governed by multiple genes, including known quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In general, almost all japonica cultivars, including Nipponbare, head early under short-day (SD) conditions, but some indica cultivars, including Kasalath, head late. To explain this difference, we identified QTLs controlling heading date under SD conditions. We used NILs, CSSLs, and BILs from a cross between Nipponbare and Kasalath, and evaluated days to heading (DTH) under SD conditions. No NILs or CSSLs showed late heading, but two BILs (BIL-55 and BIL-78) had almost the same DTH as Kasalath. We developed an F2 population from a cross between BIL-55 and Nipponbare and performed QTL analysis using SSR markers. The late-heading phenotype was controlled by two known genes and at least two novel QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 6, named qDTH4.5 and qDTH6.3. These QTLs were confirmed by QTL-seq. The QTLs and polymorphisms detected here will provide useful information for further genetic studies and breeding under SD conditions at lower latitudes.
Fruit brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Several phenotyping protocols to accurately characterize and evaluate brown rot infection have been proposed; however, the outcomes from those studies have not led to consistent advances in resistance breeding programs. Breeding for disease resistance is one of the most challenging objectives for crop improvement because disease expression is tetrahedral: it is simultaneously influenced by agent, host, environment, and human management. The present study presents a strategy based on Bayesian inference to analyze a peach breeding progeny for resistance to brown rot, evaluated using a polytomous ordinal scale. A pedigree containing two sources of resistance, one from peach and the other from almond, several commercial cultivars, and two segregating populations were analyzed to estimate the narrow-sense heritability (h2) and breeding values (EBVs) for brown rot resistance in progenies. Results show promise for genetic improvement of disease resistance and other traits characterized by strong environmental interactions.
Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content. Major QTLs in the hypocotyl were identified on chromosome 5 near the SSR marker, Satt 384, while those in the cotyledon were on chromosome 6 near Sat_312, which is linked to the T and E1 loci. Our results suggest that saponin contents in the hypocotyl and cotyledon are controlled by different genes and that it is difficult to increase the beneficial group B saponin and to decrease the undesirable group A saponin at the same time.
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common wheat disease worldwide. Developing resistant cultivars through deploying new or pyramiding resistance genes in a suitable line, is the most effective approach to control this disease. However, to stack genes in a genotype, efficient and reliable markers are required. In the present study, F2 plants and their corresponding F3 families from a cross between the resistant line; Thatcher (Tc) Lr18, and the susceptible cultivar ‘Boolani’ were used to map rust resistance gene, Lr18 using SSR markers on chromosome 5BL of hexaploid wheat. The P. triticina pathotype no 15 was used to inoculate plants. Out of 20 primers tested, eight showed polymorphism between the two parents and were subsequently genotyped in the entire F2 population. The markers Xgpw7425 and Xwmc75 flanked the locus at a distance of 0.3 and 1.2 cM, respectively. Analysis of 81 genotypes from different backgrounds with these two markers confirmed their usefulness in screening absence or presence of Lr18. Therefore, these markers can be used for gene postulation and marker-assisted selection (MAS) of this gene in wheat breeding programs in future.
The uracil auxotrophic monokaryotic strain 423-9 of Lentinula edodes was crossed with nine monokaryons (cro2-2-9, W66-1, xd2-3-2, QingKe 20A, 241-1-1, 9015-1, L66-2, 241-1-2, and Qing 23A) derived from wild type strains of L. edodes. Nine dikaryotic hybrids were established from these crosses. These hybrids were fruited and 496 single spore isolates were obtained. Among these single spore isolates, 166 were identified as monokaryons under a microscope. We screened these monokaryons on selective medium and obtained 19 uracil auxotrophic monokaryons. By using the Monkaryon-monkaryon crossing method among the uracil auxotrophic monokaryons, 56 uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains were established on selective medium. These dikaryotic strains were unable to grow on minimal medium without uracil and exhibited slow growth rates on PDA plates compared to the wild type strain. The uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains also showed more vigorous growth on sawdust cultivation medium containing uracil than that without uracil. The fruiting tests showed that they formed normal fruiting bodies on the sawdust medium containing uracil. The results show that the uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strain of L. edodes could be produced by mating, and will provide a valuable resource for future genetic studies and for spawn protection and identification.
Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between ‘New Kawogo’ × ‘Beauregard’. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers. Broad sense heritability (H2) for storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content were 0.24, 0.68, 0.70 and 0.90, respectively. Storage root β-carotene content was negatively correlated with dry matter (r = −0.59, P < 0.001) and starch (r = −0.93, P < 0.001) content, while storage root yield was positively correlated with dry matter (r = 0.57, P = 0.029) and starch (r = 0.41, P = 0.008) content. Through logistic regression, a total of 12, 4, 6 and 8 SSR markers were associated with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content, respectively. The SSR markers used in this study may be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis and selection for these traits in future.
Seed size is one of the most important traits in leguminous crops. We obtained a recessive mutant of blackgram that had greatly enlarged leaves, stems and seeds. The mutant produced 100% bigger leaves, 50% more biomass and 70% larger seeds though it produced 40% less number of seeds. We designated the mutant as multiple-organ-gigantism (mog) and found the mog phenotype was due to increase in cell numbers but not in cell size. We also found the mog mutant showed a rippled leaf (rl) phenotype, which was probably caused by a pleiotropic effect of the mutation. We performed a map-based cloning and successfully identified an 8 bp deletion in the coding sequence of VmPPD gene, an orthologue of Arabidopsis PEAPOD (PPD) that regulates arrest of cell divisions in meristematic cells. We found no other mutations in the neighboring genes between the mutant and the wild type. We also knocked down GmPPD genes and reproduced both the mog and rl phenotypes in soybean. Controlling PPD genes to produce the mog phenotype is highly valuable for breeding since larger seed size could directly increase the commercial values of grain legumes.
To investigate the genetic background responsible for blast resistance in Oryza sativa L. ‘Hokuriku 193’, QTL analysis was conducted using the F3 lines from the cross [ms-bo] Nekken 2 × Hokuriku 193 that were artificially infected with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 6 and 12 that correlated with greater blast resistance in the Hokuriku 193-type lines. Notably, the QTL on chromosome 12 had a major effect and localized to the same region where Pi20(t), a broad-spectrum blast resistance gene, is positioned, suggesting strongly that the blast resistance of Hokuriku 193 was controlled by Pi20(t). Also, QTL analysis of the lines found to have no Pi20(t) detected two QTLs on chromosome 4 (qBR4-1 and qBR4-2) and one QTL on chromosome 6 (qBR6), of which qBR4-2 and qBR6 correlated with higher percentages of resistant plants in the Hokuriku 193-type lines. The blast susceptibility of BR_NIL (a NIL of Hokuriku 193 from which Pi20(t) was eliminated) was greater than that of Hokuriku 193, suggesting that elimination of Pi20(t) may markedly increase blast susceptibility. The disease severity of BR_NIL was mild, which might be the effect of qBR4-2 and/or qBR6.
Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) null ‘New Sachiho Golden’ is a two-row malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar released in 2015 that was developed at the Tochigi Prefectural Agricultural Experimental Station by backcross breeding using the high-yield leading cultivar ‘Sachiho Golden’ as a recurrent parent and the LOX-1 null mutant ‘Daikei LM1’ as a non-recurrent parent. To develop ‘New Sachiho Golden’ we used a simple LOX activity assay and marker-assisted selection. This is the first LOX-1 null malting barley cultivar in Japan that is resistant to barley yellow mosaic virus (types I–III). Agronomic characteristics and malting qualities of ‘New Sachiho Golden’ were similar to those of ‘Sachiho Golden’, except that ‘New Sachiho Golden’ had no LOX activity in ungerminated grains and had clearly lower LOX activity during malting than ‘Sachiho Golden’. The concentrations of a trans-2-nonenal (T2N) precursor in wort and beer made from ‘New Sachiho Golden’ were significantly lower than in those made from ‘Sachiho Golden’, both before and after storage.