This paper aims to first clarify how semantic redundancy occurs in L2 production due to the automatic substitution of an L1’s elements. The second goal is to argue that raising awareness of the features of one’s L1 in L2 learning is essential for preventing redundancy. The main focus of this analysis is the mechanical substitution of “I think” for “to omou,” which is frequently seen in Japanese university students’ written work. Unnatural errors caused by substitution are difficult to deal with due to deep-rooted factors ranging from grammatical disparity to confusion resulting from cultural differences. Cultural differences have not been explored in detail in the current context, although Nishitani and Nakazaki (2015) partially analyzed grammatical disparity. Explaining “to omou” and “I think” will reveal the factors that trigger the semantic redundancy mentioned above. Overall, this paper maintains that one of the key ways to prevent the L2 problems in question is to foster a deeper awareness of one’s L1.
This study focuses on the effectiveness of behavioral rehearsal and meta-cognitive strategies to promote the maintenance of social skills and targeted skills in the social skills training of high school students. A sample of 133 subjects (66 males and 67 females) was tested on social skills scales and two targeted skills evaluations. Teachers evaluated the subjects’ social skills using the same scales. The results found that the subjects improved their speaking skills and the teachers reported increased social skills and listening skills when social skills training was combined with
meta-cognition compared to behavioral rehearsal. The results further suggested that the effects of the strategy depended on the type of target skill. The procedure used by the teachers to assess the subjects’ social skills is discussed. Future studies should consider longitudinal research designs.
In this paper, we aim to clarify a teacher’s various positions in his analysis of his colleague’s
lesson. We examined his discourse using a qualitative analysis (grounded theory) based on
Hermans’ idea of the dialogical self. Our findings were as follows: First, the teacher expressed different students’ views in his analysis of his colleague’s lesson; these standpoints were connected via “dialogue.” Second, the teacher not only used the “dialogue” relationship between the students’ outlooks in his evaluation of the lesson, but also a future potential design for it. Third, the dialogue analysis is supported by a curiosity of the students’ feelings and their backgrounds. Fourth, the dialogue analysis was not connected to the teacher’s experiences and his interest in a reflective practice. We concluded that the dialogical analysis of a lesson could produce more productive opinions than traditional interpretations. It was important to examine other teachers’ lessons using the emotional aspect of curiosity, which is tied to an exploration of improving lessons in the sense that a teacher forms more than one perspective.