There are many kinds of the emulsifying equipments for food industries. Most of them are originally developed for the other industries, i.e., chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. We can use formulas and mechanical forces to make emulsions. The important factors for formulation are the surface tension, the electrostatic attraction/repulsion, and the differences of gravity/density. On the other hand, shear, impact and cavitation forces can be used as mechanical forces. Normally, mechanical forces play main roles in emulsification process, but emulsifiers and stabilizers are used to improve the process. It is important to combine appropriately the formulation factors with the mechanical forces to obtain emulsions with good qualities. Recently, the balanced combination among formulas, rawmaterials, manufacturing-process and emulsifying equipments is more required. In the future, it should be more difficult to scale-up the emulsifying process, because of more complicated formulas to cope with numerous varieties of new emulsions products.
Activated carbons were prepared from waste coffee beans by conventional steam activation. Obtained activated carbons were evaluated from a viewpoint of porous properties. It was shown that prepared activated carbons had around 900m2/g of BET surface area and about 0.3 cm3/g of mesopore volume. The effect of the pretreatment was also investigated for the further development of porous properties. Here, the pretreatment means mixture of metal salts with raw materials and acid treatments prior to the steam activation. It was observed that mesopores of activated carbon prepared via mixture of Ca (OH) 2, carbonization, HNO3 treatment at boiling point and steam activation were much developed. The carbons had over 1000m2/g of BET surface area and about 0.5 cm3/g of mesopore volume. It was indicated that the possibility of practical use of the activated carbons from waste coffee beans, because mesopores of carbons prepared via pretreatments were more developed than those of commercial activated carbon.
Characteristics of the bacteria KP-991 and KP-992 strains isolated from soy sauce of which the bacterial spore was stable against heating for 10min at 100°C was investigated. The isolated bacteria were identified to be Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Fukumoto) Priest et al. from the results of observation of morphology, physiological tests and analysis of 16S rDNA. The KP-991 and KP-992 strains were more stable against heating than the type strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis Cohn and B. megaterium de Bary. The KP-991 and KP-992 strains survived in a trial product of dilution-free seasoning because of the high thermostability and remarkably grew in two kinds of dilution-free seasoning on the market. It is suggested that the dilution-free seasoning made from the soy sauce contaminated by the KP-991 or KP-992 strain putrefies.