This study aims to explore some components of subjective disparities and construct a hypothesis model of subjective disparities. The participants were foreign residents. The personal attitude construct (PAC) method was used to examine the participants’ interpretation of their subjective disparities. The study found two disparities, relational mobility and approval / inclusive disparities, as components of subjective disparities. First, participants who had higher relational mobility tended not to feel any disparities. Second, participants who felt that they were hindered in the performance of their abilities and personalities, were unapproved by the reference group member and excluded from the group, tended to feel disparities.
The purpose of this study was to explore the work experience of international students who have found employment in Japan and their mutual influence on the organization and the people who work there. A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight former international students employed in both foreign-affiliated and Japanese companies in Japan. The constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006, 2014) was applied to the analysis of the data. This method takes an interpretive approach, allowing researchers to accept subjective perspectives. The analysis yielded three notable findings. First, the work experiences of former international students vary depending on their work environments. The perceived differences in work environments affected the career development of the participants. Second, distinction pertaining to the profession-related opinions of the foreign employees also influenced the organizational culture in turn, leading to institutional reforms. Further, former international students adopted the beneficial aspects of Japanese work styles and Japanese nationals into their values and codes of behavior. In sum, the second and third outcome suggests that multicultural collaboration created constructive interactions.
Having abolished an institutionalized white supremacy called Apartheid, South Africa has been under black majority rule and is searching for ways to redress racial divides and inequality. Being the largest economy in Africa, the country has the largest Japanese community on the continent, offering these residents precious opportunities to deal with “racial” issues largely neglected in Japan. As the Japanese residents interact with variously racialized peoples of South Africa, they learn different racial perspectives and reflect on themselves as “Japanese.” While it remains to be seen if they are growing out of an accommodating attitude of “honorary whites,” the Japanese residents could share in post-apartheid ideals and cannot only make a difference in South Africa, but in Japan as well.