In mountainous areas that have many neighborhoods without public transportation, maintaining and ensuring daily transportation is an important task for keeping communities alive. Recently, micro electric Vehicles (MEVs), which are small vehicles for 1 or 2 passengers and which have environmental-friendly features, have drawn attention as a new mode of daily transportation in mountainous areas. For this study, based on MEVs introduction experiment conducted in Ueyama area in Mimasaka city, we examined the effects of MEV introduction in a mountainous area through detailed investigation of the actual situation, future tasks, merits, and other factors related to MEV. Results clarified that most people who joined the survey recognized both difficulties and benefits of MEV, irrespective of the frequency of their use. However, the frequency of MEV was influenced by respondents’ conventional behaviors. For high-frequency users, CO2 emissions amounts and fuel costs for transportation would be markedly reduced, although their evaluation of transportation convenience tended to rise.
In recent years, bike sharing systems (BSSs) have been developed, especially in China. To clarify points related to sustainable BSS, this study specifically examined BSSs of two types (BSSs with and without ports) in 246 cities that by 2016 from mutual use, convenience, diverse business model, applied technologies and position as public transportation. Results show the following. 1) First, BSSs with a port were introduced to limited areas on a small scale, then expanded to larger areas. The port density increased through repeated expansions. 2) BSSs with a port were financed by government investment, operated by companies as a public private partnership 3) Portless BSSs have become increasingly popular since 2016 because of their simple procedures and fashionable design, but some parking problems and funding problems have occurred. Therefore, the sustainability of their operations is a matter of concern.