JSTE Journal of Traffic Engineering
Online ISSN : 2187-2929
ISSN-L : 2187-2929
Volume 3 , Issue 2
Special Edition
Showing 1-46 articles out of 46 articles from the selected issue
Special Edition A (Research Paper)
  • Hideto KATSUKI, Masayuki KAWAMOTO, Morimitsu KURINO, Mamoru TANIGUCHI
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_1-A_10
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Automated driving vehicles (ADVs) are receiving much attention recently for their expected effects on the travel activities of many people. Some ADV users might tend to go out more frequently or travel to destinations they would not otherwise visit. This study specifically examines life activity changes of ADV users, especially with respect to two points. This study examines what activities are expected to be affected or changed. Additionally, this study assesses the main factors inducing ADV users to change activities. Results reveal the following: 1) Leisure time activities are expected to be more affected than other daily activities. 2) Non-drivers are expected to be more affected than drivers. 3) Women's life activities are expected to be enhanced more than men's activities by ADVs. 4) Non-drivers who are afraid of driving themselves tend to use different hospitals or food stores from those used before using ADVs. 5) Regarding sightseeing activity frequency, single-person households are expected to be more affected than multi-person households.

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  • Katsuhiro IIDA, Shoji ASAI, Takeshi INOUE
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_11-A_18
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In order to take measures effective against a reverse run on an expressway that poses a social problem, we need to grasp a process of driving leading to the reverse run. In this research, we first presented a hypothesis about this process and then verified it. As a result, we found the possibility that a trigger of the reverse run would be a destination mistake such as passing through a target interchange. Next, on the basis of this result, we examined the factors of occurrence of destination mistakes. Specifically, in consideration of the use situation of car navigation and guide signs, we identified the situation in which the destination mistake easily occurred. In addition, we investigated the tendency of attribute and information collection of individuals with reference to target people for analysis belonging to each situation. As a result, it was understood that the factors of occurrence of destination mistakes were that there was a tendency in which the target people did not refer to the guide signs while thinking highly of the guide of car navigation, and that they were not able to fully utilize the guide sign information on urban expressways.

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  • Toshiaki HORIE, Hirokazu AKAHANE
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_19-A27
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    There are cases where detected traffic volume includes bias errors of ten percent or more due to the combined factors of changes to vehicle detectors and lane-changing vehicles. These bias errors can considerably lower the precision in setting important parameters for traffic simulations because of the failure to account for the law of conservation of vehicles. Therefore, detection and correction of the bias errors are essential. In this study, bias correction coefficients for free flow as well as for congested flow were estimated at every cross-section where traffic detectors were installed on a virtual urban expressway network with a circular section and four leg junctions. In the estimation, a simulated traffic volume that included random and bias errors was used. The findings showed a possibility that estimation errors of bias correction coefficients could be restricted to a certain level if the estimated error variance as an output of the Kalman filter was used as one criterion.

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  • Tetsunobu YOSHITAKE, Chizuru AKASHI, Toru HAMASUNA, Etsuji SHIRAISHI
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_28-A_36
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper aims to investigate the feasibility of consolidated transportation of passengers and cargos by a municipal bus combined with community-based cargo transportation service managed by a residential organization in a depopulated district. Based on the ‘experimental operation’ designated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in Ogawa district, Nishimera Village, Miyazaki Prefecture, surveys on cargo volume, postal and home delivery services and an interview survey over the concerned people/organizations were conducted to analyze the feasibility of the proposed transportation system and required conditions. The main results are as follows: 1) the cargo volume is within the legal limit of light trucks, 2) both of the residents, the users and the concerned service companies/organizations evaluate the proposed system positively. And then, this paper identified 3) the issues to be agreed among the stakeholders concerning the contents/levels of the future practical consolidated service system, and 4) the necessity to strengthen the residential organization.

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  • Takahiro TSUBOTA, Toshio YOSHII, Hiroshi FUJII, Yuna KAWANO
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_37-A_43
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Traffic monitoring using Bluetooth MAC addresses has been intensively studied for a decade. Nevertheless, estimation of Origin-Destination volume is still challenging, because the detection probability is unstable and sensitive to the installation positions and environments. With the aim to reveal the factors affecting the detection probability of MAC addresses, this study conducted a series of driving tests to collect detection samples from moving Bluetooth device under various scenarios. The data was then fed in a Logistic Regression Model to estimate the contribution of the factors, such as the installation positions of the scanner and the driving speed of the experiment car, to the detection probability. The results agreed on the significance of distance and angle between the scanner and the car, as well as the car speed, as reported in preceding studies. This study further identified the contribution of driving direction and timeout duration of the scanner. The proposed model successfully estimated the detection probability with a reasonable accuracy.
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  • Seiya KUBOTA, Junichi SUSAKI, Amane KURIKI
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_44-A_52
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we developed a method to automatically correct positional errors of digital road map using probe data. Some existing methods minimize a sum of squares of the distances between the positions derived from probe data and links in digital road map database, but they may fail to update nodes’ coordinates with a high degree of accuracy because of bias of distribution of the position information in a section of a link, which represents more than two lanes. In order to reduce this effect, we assumed the distribution could be modeled by a probability model using mixed distributions, and developed a method for updating the nodes’ position with estimated model’s parameters. We first considered the optimal calculation unit to update nodes’ coordinates by using the least-square method. After that, we conducted experiments, and it was found that better updating results were obtained than those by using the existing method.

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  • Keisuke YOSHIOKA, Sumio SHIMOKAWA, Hirohisa MORITA, Shohei MOGI, Katsu ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_53-A_59
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In Japanese road network, there is a large difference between high and low speed class, and the intermediate hierarchy filling this gap is not sufficient. In contrast, most of multilane roads in urban area have not been achieved a certain level of travel speed, although this kind of roads are typically expected to perform the traffic function. Therefore, in this study, traffic operation using slow-vehicle lane as one solution to improve travel speed within the existing road space is proposed and evaluation analysis with the case study for "Loop Road No.7 (Kan-nana Dori)" by traffic simulation is conducted from the point of traffic smoothness. As a result, due to the proposed traffic operation, it is shown that travel speed of main traffic is drastically improved and the whole travel time of all directions is decreased. Moreover, operating modification according to the necessity of accessibility is also shown to be applicable.

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  • Tomoya KAWASAKI
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_60-A_67
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, choice set for the application of disaggregate logit model is attempted to generate from GPS data set, which is obtained by logging to 3,500 persons for a week in Zurich. The concept of choice set generation is on the basis of rule-based simple method. Three rules for GPS processing are proposed, such as; (i)extraction of grocery shopping trips, (ii)identification of x-y geo-code for activity places, and (iii)identification of places for individual’s home and work/school, in order to apply for disaggregate choice model. Choice set is prepared for each transport mode such as automobile, walk, and public transport. The results by using proposed rules are compared with microcensus data in terms of several aspects of trip characteristics and confirming the validity of proposed rule. Using generated choice set, grocery store choice model is developed. Estimated parameters are received as reasonable signs and statistics. From these results, we can confirm the proposed method for choice set generation is reasonable enough for the application of disaggregate logit model.

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  • Noboru ISE, Emi MINATO
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_68-A_75
    Published: February 16, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      Recently, the food desert problem has been becoming serious in mainly rural areas of Japan. Therefore, shopping support services such as mobile vendor and home delivery service have been introduced in many rural areas, in order to solve this problem.
      Introduction of shopping support services contributes to solve the food desert problem, but also might bring such side-effects as a decrease in the trip frequency to city center and changes in the frequency for shopping trips. However, as far as we know, there has been few research about them.
      Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the need to introduce shopping support services considering both the demands for and side-effects of them based on the following analyses: (1) modeling the frequency for shopping trips in different situations of shopping support services, (2) estimation of the changes in the frequency for shopping trips by introducing shopping support services and (3) analysis on factors influencing the changes in the frequency for shopping trips by introducing them.
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  • Akihito SUDO, Takehiro KASHIYAMA, Takahiro YABE, Tomoyuki HIGUCHI, Shi ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_76-A_83
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Real-time estimation of human mobility after a massive disaster plays a crucial role in disaster relief. Traffic condition estimation with mobile phone data using data assimilation techniques recently becomes attractive research field. One of the researches studies the real-time estimation of human mobility following a massive disaster using data assimilation techniques. However, the target area of the previous study is narrower area than the inside of the Yamanote line. Therefore, we aim to estimate the real-time human mobility following a massive disaster in the area covering all of the Kanto region. In order to reduce the process time, we employ the fast algorithm to calculate the earth mover's distance (EMD). Moreover, the result of EMD is converted to a bipartite graph. In the experiment, we evaluate the computational cost and accuracy using real GPS data.

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  • Daiki KUSATAKE, Toru HAGIWARA, Hidekatsu HAMAOKA, Shunsuke KOHKO, Maki ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_84-A_91
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The present study proposed a new road lighting using the pro-beam light distribution. Visibility performance provided by the current conventional road lighting brings some issues of concern in terms of changes of pedestrian visibility depended on positional relationship between location of pedestrian and luminaries. A field experiment was conducted on a test track using 12 participants. In this experiment, as simplified pro-beam road lighting was used to evaluate an effect of positive contrast consistently on visibility of pedestrian on the test track. We evaluated visibility performance of the pro-beam road lighting compared with the conventional road lighting. Visibility level assessed by the subjects were measured on the test track. Results of the experiment indicated that visibility level of the pedestrians under the pro-beam road lighting was larger and constant rather than that under the symmetric road lighting. The pro-beam road lighting proposed by the present study might have a potential to show more positive effects on the road.

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  • Yasuhiro SHIOMI, Ayana KITAMURA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_92-A_100
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Pace Maker Light (PML) is considered as one of solutions for improving traffic capacity at sags of expressways, and the number of its installation has been increased. However, the condition that PML works best is uncovered, and, in fact, its impact on traffic capacity has not been quantitatively identified. It is not enough to compare the traffic capacity before and after the installation of PML for evaluating its impact, because the value of traffic capacity varies longitudinally and periodically. In this study, we focus on the percentile value of traffic breakdown probability and traffic volume after breakdown, and analyze their longitudinal variation during 2010 to 2016 by employing dynamic linear model. As a result, it is revealed that i) 5 percentile value of breakdown probability has reduced more than 15 % since 2010 till 2016 and the periodical factors occupy around 10%, ii) PML significantly contributes to improve the value of traffic capacity, and the reliability of traffic capacity as well.

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  • Koichiro IWAOKA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_101-A_108
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Gridlock phenomenon may cause rapidly traffic congestion to a large area in a large-scale disaster such as huge earthquake. Then, there is a need to prevent the occurrence of gridlock phenomenon and mitigate the impact of it. However, the occurrence condition of gridlock phenomenon according to previous studies does not include signal control parameters explicitly. It is difficult to apply the occurrence condition to improvement of signal control parameters directly. In this paper, first we extend the occurrence condition of gridlock phenomenon on a signalized single network to involve explicitly signal control parameters. Several simulation experiments were conducted for verify our occurrence condition. The experimental results show that our occurrence condition is valid for reproducibility of gridlock phenomenon. Moreover, by focusing on transmission of start wave in a queue, we examined the effects of offset on gridlock phenomenon with traffic flow simulation. As a result, it was revealed that the occurrence of gridlock phenomenon was prevented by synchronizing offset and transmission timing of start wave to the upstream intersection.

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  • Hirotoshi SHIRAYANAGI, Toshio YOSHII, Satoshi HYODO, Shunichi WATANA ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_109-A_115
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study investigates the effect on vigilance decrement on driver's cognition of road gradient at sag sections. Previous research has suggested that traffic congestion at sag sections was dependent upon that the deceleration of the vehicle driven without notice the change in road gradient at sag section propagates to followers. In psychology, persons miss recognizing the change in the target over time because of vigilance decrement, that is deterioration in the ability to remain attention for change of target over time and it is effective to avoid to maintain attention over prolonged periods time in order to reduce vigilance decrement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the disengagement of attention to a particular field improve the cognition of change in road gradient based on selective adaptation task. As the result, in the reaction time indicated the smoothness of the cognitive process, it was possible that attentional disengagement was caused the reduction of vigilance decrement. These results suggested that it led to improve the driver's cognition of road gradient to disengage attention in proper time.

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  • Daiki NISHIHARA, Hiroshi TATSUMI, Syuji YOSHIKI, Kayoko TSUTSUMI, Syo ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_116-A_124
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    For this study, cycling experiments were conducted on road shoulders and bicycle lanes of different widths to examine the impact of automobile traffic on the consciousness of cyclists and their cycling behavior. When cycling on 1.0 meter-wide road shoulders and 1.85 meter-wide bicycle lanes, a percentage of the subjects said that they felt a sense of insecurity about cycling. It was found that the cause of their concern was not only the narrowness of the road shoulders and bicycle lanes, but the close proximity of running automobiles and the obstructions caused by parked vehicles. The relationships between these factors and cycling behavior were analyzed to identify the impact of automobile traffic on cycling behavior. In addition, the relationships between security and insecurity and cycling behavior were analyzed to identify the cycling behavior characteristics of subjects who cycled with a sense of security and those who cycled with a sense of insecurity. Based on the results, issues that need to be addressed in the development of bicycle lanes that reflect the perspectives of cyclists’ feelings of security were considered.

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  • Shin-ichi NARUSHIMA, Makoto KASAI, Jian XING, Hidenori GOTO, Mitsuhir ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_125-A_134
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper focuses on an analysis of spatial variation of speed on two-way two-lane (TWTL) expressways in Japan with ETC2.0 data recorded at an interval of 200 meters instead of using traffic detector. Speed-profiles are drawn based on relation between speed and flow-rate in the TWTL sections of three representative routes (i.e., Okayama, Tokai-hokuriku and Joban Expressway). The speed-profiles show sections where the level of service is inferior to other sections and factors of slow-down may be found by qualitative analyses. As a result, non-trivial tendencies are found as follows; 1) generally, speed gradually decreases in the TWTL sections with fluctuation, on the other hand, 2) when flow-rate is relatively high (e.g., 800 pcu/h), speed decreases shortly after auxiliary passing lane, 3) sag or ascent section may be an another factor of slow-down. These findings may contribute to selection of sections where auxiliary passing lane is to be added in order to increase speed effectively, and to examination of the existing design guidelines.

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  • Makoto KASAI, Jian XING, Shin-ichi NARUSHIMA, Hidenori GOTO, Mitsuhiro ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_135-A_144
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Follower density and Percent-time spent following (PTSF) are often used as a measure of effectiveness (MOE) on two-way two-lane expressways. In this paper, in order to estimate the two MOEs instead of traffic detector data installed at most one access-controlled section (e.g., one IC pair), ETC2.0 probe data, which contain velocity records observed at every 200m, are used for calibration of traffic simulation model. The two MOEs are also estimated at an interval of 200m. Findings are summarized as follows; 1) Follower density increases shortly after the end of auxiliary lane, 2) the level of service is acceptable at relatively low flow-rate according to available literatures, 3) at relatively high flow-rate (e.g., 600-800 pcu/h) the two MOEs are estimated as a low level of service and 4) in case of taking longitudinal gradient into account, the level of service becomes worse than that of case of flat road. However, it is also found that the spatial variation of the estimated MOEs is insensitive and needs further exploration.

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  • Ryo INOUE, Akihisa MIYASHITA, Masatoshi SUGITA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_145-A_152
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Road traffic conditions in urban areas are complicated by the daily, weekly, seasonally, weather-induced traffic demand fluctuations, various origin–destination patterns of traffic demand, effects caused by the control of traffic signals installed in these areas, and so on. Therefore, it is not easy to quantitatively analyze typical traffic congestion patterns that are represented by the time and place of occurrence, the process of propagation and diminution, duration time, and many others.

    This study analyzed and visualized the spread patterns of traffic congestion in Naha city, Japan, based on the mining of frequent congestion patterns that are spatio-temporally continuous, from the long-term observation data of traffic sensors. The results revealed a variety of spread processes of traffic congestion induced by the different traffic conditions, such as weather, time, and day of the week, and confirmed the usefulness of data mining-based approach for understanding the characteristics of traffic congestions occurred in the target area.

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  • Atsushi OKAMURA, Yuhei ABE, Junichi FUKUI, Hirofumi MATSUMURA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_153-A_162
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    During recently years, there are some local public transports by participation of various members in the area. These enable people to use transport easier and more flexibly for their needs than the normal public transport. However, for introducing the one, there are few findings about participation by people or companies. In this study, we cleared the intentions of funding for transport and participation in ride-share, and clarified what factors affect them. As the result, it was suggested that the trust for the areas affect the intention to fund for public transport. It is also suggested that the intention to use public transport in the future affect the conscious of the system for ride-share and use it, and that encouraging to take part in the local activities affect the participation in ride-share. And then, it is suggested that the concern for traffic accident during ride-share affected the intention not to take part in ride-share.

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  • Kenta IIDA, Hiroyuki ONEYAMA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_163-A_171
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aims to analyze the effect of road signs and road markings displaying the sequential Roman numerals on the reduction of confusion of drivers by experimental test using a driving simulator, in order to solve the problems, which is considered as one of the issues to install a roundabout, such as loss of sense of direction and difficulty of recognition of exit tract. There is a significant difference between the current and improved plan in the average of the 5 rank subjective evaluation value evaluating the confusion of drivers in driving ring road of roundabout, which shows the effect of proposed signs and road markings on the reduction of confusion of drivers in driving ring road of roundabout. On the other hand, by the analysis using an eye mark recorder, the possibility is pointed out that the proposed treatment raises a proportion of gaze to the road signs and markings and attention forward is lost.

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  • Masaya FUKUMITSU, Makoto TSUKAI, Taku KANZAWA, Junyi ZHANG
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_172-A_177
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Today, various Big Data is available. But there are few analysis by using plural data source. In Japan, ETC has been populated in our society now. Since ETC records almost all the individual trip on highway. In this study, the new traffic accident factors were investigated by making the characteristic indexes from ETC Big Data. Specifically, the variables expressing peripheral traffic conditions in case of traffic accident in a highway. And a factor that affect traffic accident severity was investigated from candidates for explanatory variables by using ordered probit model. The traffic accident severity was defined independently. As a result of analysis, the possibility that the neighbor car’s characteristics in case of traffic accident such as frequency of use, travel time and monthly travel time affect traffic accident severity was clarified. From newly gained knowledge, the time and point where has potentially hazardous of a serious accident would be clarified.

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  • Kuniaki SASAKI, Yuta NATORI, Hitoshi IGUCHI, Hiroyuki NISHIKAWA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_178-A_186
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    For the high quality infrastructure in the future, it is important to construct and manage road network , based on the traffic characteristics. It is necessary to understand the characteristics of traffic for that purpose. In this decade, it became easier to handle the consecutive data of traffic, so that we analyze the traffic volume of expressway using state-space model. We assume three factors that affect the state of traffic volume. One is the seasonal trend, the others are the "day of the week" effect and the "time of day" effect. Autoregression is also included to consider the overflow effect by the road capacity, which restricts the traffic volume at congestion time. The algorithm to estimate the state of traffic is Kalman filter that allows us to estimate the state by sequential analysis, which can consider new data addition. As the result of the state variables, we saw the characteristics of the traffic and easily found the difference of the purpose of traffic on each IC.

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  • Takuro KOJIMA, Hideo YAMANAKA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_187-A_193
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport and The National Police Agency published "Guideline for creation of safety and comfort bicycle environment" in November of 2012. It appears the policy and process for bicycle network planning and shows the basic procedures on each planning phase. On the other hand, some of the contents of network planning issued by local authorities after the publication of the guideline are still different from the description of the guideline in each authority. The aim of this study is to make clear the tasks and problems for the spread of bicycle network planning, for local cities and towns. The authors analyzed the matching situation of network planning by local authorities to the contents of the Guideline. As results, matching situation is different between issuing year, city scale, and urgency for bicycle safety, especially there are own arrangements on the system of selecting bicycle street types in each authority.

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  • Takashi KOBAYASHI, Shogo SAKAMOTO
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_194-A_201
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aims to reveal the cause of crossing on closing railway crossing by logistics regression using actual survey data about driver experience (waiting time, waiting distance, the number of vehicles waiting, and the number of closed railway crossings encountered) before crossing. The results showed that increasing waiting time, waiting distance, number of waiting vehicles, and number of closed railway crossings encountered leads to an increase in the frequency of crossing at a closing railway crossing. The results also showed that when arriving at a row of cars, the waiting number and the waiting distance are the cause of crossing at a closing railway crossing. However, while staying in a row of cars, the creeping time and the stopping time are the cause of crossing at a closing railway crossing. An increase in the creeping time results in thrice the occurrence frequency compared to an increase in the waiting time.

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  • Tomoyuki TODOROKI, Tomoya KAWASAKI, Daichi NOMURA, Takahiro YOKOZEKI
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_202-A_207
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Currently, arrival time of route bus is estimated by a bus location system, which is frequently diverged from actual arrival time. In this study, a forecasting model for arrival time of the route bus is developed by using Neural Network, which considers several teaching signal such as stopping time at bus stops. As a result, in case correct forecast is defined as within 3 minutes differences between estimated and actual arrival time, hitting ratio is received as approximately 99% for the forecasting arrival time at next bus stop. Meanwhile, hitting ratio is declined up to 91% in case of within 1 minute range. However, hitting ratio is dropped up to approximately 80% (within 3 minutes) and 35% (within 1 minutes) in case forecasting the arrival time in the final bus stop when bus departs first bus stop. Although the hitting ratio is declined in the case forecasting arrival time at final bus stop when the bus departs first bus stop, it is approximately 10 points better result comparing to existing bus location system.

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  • Hiroshi SHIMAMOTO, Kodai MERA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_208-A_214
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Act on Domestic Animal Infectious Disease Control requires to take such measures as culling or installing disinfecting points on roads when the infection of foot-and-mouth disease is observed. Because the installing of the disinfecting points also affect to local transportation seriously, it is important to develop an epidemic prevention plan considering the impact on local transportation as well as the effects onto livestock. This paper developed a spatial infection model considering the effect both on livestock and local transportation to contribute the development of an epidemic prevention planning. As the result of a case study using a toy network, it was confirmed that the installing disinfecting points affects trade-off relationship between livestock and local transportation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that even if the disinfecting points are installed prophylactically before observing the infection on foot-andmouth disease, the effect onto livestock may not be large if the number of prophylactically installed disinfecting point is small.

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  • Tomoyuki INAGAKI, Satoru KOBAYAKAWA, Yoshinori TERAUCHI, Daisuke WADA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_215-A_222
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Traffic accidents of children have a higher incidence of traffic offence because children tend to make human errors in the road crossing process compared to other age groups. Cognition errors caused by the lack of confirming the safety are often mentioned generally as challenges in road crossing. Many children have not developed well the ability of adequate decision of crossing after vehicle cognition. In this paper, the authors evaluated the road crossing decision characteristics of the children in consideration of the influence of the vehicle cognition state, which provide the concrete suggestion for the traffic safety measures and education. Based on the observation of the crossing decision situation of the children on the test road, it was found that children are more likely to make incorrect decision in short decision time which caused by short distance of a vehicle, and it became difficult to make appropriate decision for vehicle speeds.

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  • Satoshi IWAYANAGI, Fumihiko NAKAMURA, Shinji TANAKA, Shino MIURA, Ryo ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_223-A_229
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    On March 11, 2011, liquefaction occurred by off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake in Urayasu city, Chiba. Therefore traffic difficulties and suspension of water supply occurred and emergency water supply activity was carried out. This study focuses on this emergency water supply activity and evaluated citizen's physical burden by the transportation of the water on foot using the shortest path search and estimated preparation when support of the water supply activity decreases by calculating a queue of the water supply. As a result, about the former, we clarified that many citizens felt a severe burden by the transportation more than six minutes in then Urayasu city. Therefore, as a reduction plan of the burden, we clarified that excessive burden by the transportation more than ten minutes greatly decreased by utilizing water tanks which was reinforced against earthquakes. About the latter, we clarified that the bases of emergency water supply which take charge of water supply for around 8,000 people have risks that the time when a water wagon becomes absent and the person who can't receive water within the activity time occurred and the storage of 1L per person per day was necessary to avoid this.

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  • Yutaka NAGAMI, Haruko SUZUKI, Masahito TAKIZAWA, Akira KIJIMA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_230-A_237
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study was designed road pavement-marking that looks three-dimensional to "Stop" for the purpose of traffic safety. Method of marking a three-dimensional on the plane by the perspective is called Ana-morphosis. With Ana-morphosis approach, we create the design proposal to show a road marking character of "Stop" in three dimensions. The actual drive experiments of the CG driving real and full-size sheet using a drive simulator equipment at the installation road, was verified that effect. As the result, the designs considered that the driver stops unobtrusive operation are” the horizontal display block of characters” and “road sign of Stop”. Throughout the experiment, anamorphosis technique is actual paint compared to the CG was found to be invisible to the very three-dimensional. On the other hand, it was found to be easier to read and to apply to the character. Accordingly, it was able to suggest the possibility of traffic safety contributed by design focusing on readability than stereoscopic.

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  • Kazuyuki TAKADA, Kota MIYAUCHI, Yuzo TAKANAMI, Makoto FUJIU
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_238-A_245
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Recently, the delay of railway operation chronically occurs in Tokyo metropolitan area and many studies focused on the travel time reliability of railway operation from various points of view. However, there are few studies analyzing the actual arrival situation. Therefore, this study focused on arrival situation of railway commuters. An internet survey was conducted in order to obtain the data regarding not only departure situation but also arrival situation. At first, properties of departure and arrival situations were analyzed and it became clear that plural distributions are mixing. Then, this study tried to estimate arrival distribution model by applying mixture distribution model. It makes the arrival situation of the railway commuters more useful using both normal distribution and the exponential distribution than it uses the only one distribution. As the results of parameter estimation, mixture model containing two normal distributions and one exponential distribution have highest reproducibility among the estimated mixture distribution models.

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  • Naoki TODOROKI, Yoshiyasu YANAGISAWA, Sou MUTOU, Ryo TONDOKORO, Jun-ic ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_246-A_254
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The action of the activated measures toward the intensive city is practiced in each place of the whole prefectures, and, as for the study about the central urban district excursion action, the prior effect analysis and evaluation for they action are not made use of in practical business enough although there is many it. In this study, I divided central urban district into plural block nodes and built a citizen’s rambling activity model to calculate the choice probability of each node. Furthermore, I developed it to a model in consideration of characteristic of a person coming to the town such as the street satisfaction, and analysis became able to evaluate the influence on central urban district by evaluation of a person coming to the town according to street space maintenance or software measures. In addition, in the Nagano-city’s central urban district, it was revealed that the athletic capability index according to the generation had a big influence on the excursion action and was able to show that excursion permission distance varied according to the generation. Furthermore, I applied the choice probability that I calculated and performed quantity of traffic estimation in the central urban district.

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  • Yuya TABEI, Teppei OSADA, Nobuaki Ohmori
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_255-A_262
    Published: February 16, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Some cities in Japan have a plan to introduce Light Rail Transit (LRT), which is considered to be one of the promising measures to escape from auto-dependent cities. Utsunomiya is one of the cities that have a LRT project. In this LRT project of Utsunomiya is introducing LRT on the street, and besides, there is a large shopping complex nearby. However, there are some problems to be solved when introducing LRT on the streets, e.g., decrease in road capacity, influence of LRT passengers crossing streets on road traffic flow, etc. This study investigates how introduction of LRT affects traffic flow in Utsunomiya by microscopic traffic flow simulation. The simulation analyses show that traffic congestion occurs on both weekdays and holidays in the westward direction of the street which has LRT track. Also an increase in the number of pedestrians crossing streets toward a LRT stop adjacent to a large shopping complex much affects road traffic flow.

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  • Sachiko OHASHI, Haruka KAWASE, Kosuke SEKI, Shinsuke SETOSHITA
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_263-A_270
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The measures of reducing the vehicular speed are the keys to promoting the traffic safety of residential roads. This study focuses on chicanes on residential road that one of the traffic safety measures, and aims to clarify the structure that large sized motor vehicles can fit through and reduce the speed of small sized motor vehicles. In the first place, 3-patterns of structure that have different free view width were set by vehicle shape trace and arranged on the test course. On this course, driving survey and opinion survey were conducted, and analyzed the relation of vehicle speed, free view width, and opinion of the driver. The results showed that if free view width is set under 2 meters then the vehicle speed stays under 30 kilometers per hour. If the free view width is 3 meters then the vehicle speed is not reduced, but it has the effect of promoting careful driving.

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  • Takeshi MATSUMURA, Tomotaka WATANABE, Hirofumi YOTSUTSUJI, Hideyuki KI ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_271-A_279
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    For evaluating the level of traffic service, we proposed a measure of effectiveness index named “Inter-Base Accessibility Index” which evaluates how easy to access to a base. This index consists of terms of driving safety and smoothness, and the value well fit the driver’s subjective evaluation. However, the evaluation process is rather complicated so that it is not easy for road administrators. To resolve the difficulty mentioned above, this study proposes an easy to handle method to estimate the value of index by using traffic counter data By analyzing relationships between the values of parameters that define the distribution of the value of Inter-Base Accessibility Index and relating traffic characteristics, a new method has been developed which makes us simple and easier estimation possible. Through a numerical case study based on the traffic data generated by microscopic traffic simulation, the estimated distributions of the index by using proposed method shows fairly good fitness to the observed distributions.

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  • Satoshi TSUCHIYA, Keishi TANIMOTO
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_280-A_286
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    When we think about sustainable society in depopulated areas, it is an important perspective that, a community round-trip type service supplier can play a role of supporter by giving additional services between his main businesses. In this study, we focus on a local taxi company as an additional service supplier. Assuming taxi drivers supply some support activities between “in-service” hours of their business, we show a methodology for an elementary analysis how much they could have done such activities. Next we discuss a supply possibility of additional services of the taxi company by analyzing the main service record data of passenger transportation. Employing space-time prism concepts, it will be made clear by measuring the number of districts the taxi drivers can visit for additional services, under space and time constraints of “interval of passenger transportations”. As a result of a case study in Wakasa town in Tottori, we found that frequency of the additional services is almost once in every week.

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  • Kiwamu HASEGAWA, Satoru KOBAYAKAWA, Tomoyuki INAGAKI, Hisanari USHIROO ...
    2017 Volume 3 Issue 2 Pages A_287-A_294
    Published: February 01, 2017
    Released: February 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Relief supplies are necessary for living people who have to survive in shelters. Relief supplies are transported by vehicles such as a truck and ban using on emergency roads. Roadside buildings and bridges on the emergency roads are maintained for earthquake resistance. So, emergency roads are likely to be functional even after the disaster. However, secondary roads are necessary to transport relief supplies because all of shelters are not faced emergency roads. Currently, there is no guidelines about the road between the emergency road and the shelters. In this study, the access roads between the emergency roads and the shelters were analyzed considering the building collapse which is one of road closed factors. Moreover, appropriate routes of the relief supplies were analyzed through a case study. As the result of the analysis, it is revealed the shelters which may not reach relief supplies, and indicated a counter measure for these shelters.

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