In this study, we developed the Over-Adaptation Scale-Relationship Specified (OAS-RS) for early adolescents. Additionally, we investigated different characteristics of over-adaptation towards parents, peers, teachers by examining their relationships with school adjustment and stress response, and classifying individuals based on their over-adaptation. Based on a pilot study and previous studies, the OAS-RS was developed, and 1180 Japanese junior high school students, completed the questionnaire. Factor analyses found six factors, and the correlation and Cronbach's α analyses showed that the OAS-RS had adequate validity and reliability. Additionally, this study revealed that OAS-RS scores were correlated with school adjustment and stress response, and differences in the OAS-RS scores with reference to gender and grade varied for each type of relationship. A cluster analysis revealed some clusters, which were interpreted as over-adaptation towards (a) parents, peers, and teachers, (b) parents, (c) peers, and (d) peers and teachers. Those who were over-adaptive at home (towards parents), at school (towards peers and teachers), and both (towards parents, peers, and teachers) showed lower adjustment, but those who exhibited over-adaption towards peers showed no differences in adjustment scores.
The purpose of this qualitative study is to elucidate themes related to the process from the beginning of employment seeking until deciding to enter a less desirable company. This study consists of semi-structured interviews of new employees, who were not able to enter the company of their choice. Interviews were analyzed via Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). Our results identified 26 concepts, organized into 6 superordinate categories. The central theme of changing future perspectives and expectations united the observations, and divided them into four chronological periods, (1.) Creating an ideal perspective, (2.) Wavering from the ideal perspective, (3.) Avoiding a critical future, and (4.) Creating a temporal perspective. From these results it can be concluded that employment seekers may experience mental instability when realizing that they will not receive the job they desired. However, it is also suggested that many of them settle into their new positions with a degree of acceptance, specifically through setting up a “temporal perspective”.
In this article, I made an exploratory study regarding the existence and the kinds of the self-formation mode in adolescence. The self-formation mode was defined as "a mode to promote self formation at a specific level, such as daily life and activities." In the study, 24 junior and senior female university students participated in the semi-structured interview and were asked to talk about how they changed and developed since they entered university. The analysis of their self-narratives revealed that there were several kinds of self-formation modes with different kinds. First, there were at least three kinds of self-formation modes from the perspective of activities: that is, the self-formation modes as "activity for achieving time perspective (SF1)", "basic activity for developing future (SF2)", and "activity without time perspective (SF3)." Second, SF1 was goal-oriented, while SF3 was not; SF2 was between these two. Adolescents with SF2 were interpreted not to have clear future goals, but to believe that basic activities could make their future. The article concluded with a discussion of how the positioning dynamics of SF2 especially had not been addressed in past studies of time perspectives and goals.
I have advocated "Transformative and Consensual Validation" as a research method in adolescent psychology, to help understand the adolescent as an agent in their own development. This method is based on the following two requisites: First, research should focus on the process of participants' transformation, which occurs through the awareness of who they are. Second, the changes measured by a researcher should be confirmed by the participants themselves. The review of four empirical studies that used this method suggested that, only when participants shared the research frame, could they support the research results. The paper concludes that further studies, beyond the educational settings in which previous studies were done, are needed in order to generalize from the findings.
This research examined aspects of deadlock that students experienced during studying. I illuminated the characteristics of the problems for each academic year based on the consultations for new clients conducted by a student counseling organization (511 cases). Then, using psychological interviews (eight cases) with clients, I examined the essences of their studying problems. As a result, the degrees of unfitness of the clients due to decreased study motivation and poor grades were significant. In the first-year, there was a group of students whose degree of unfitness was so high, that the problem of forming their own autonomy was closely connected to their studying habits. As for the second and third years, problems that had previously been shelved, such as restructuring of the object or subject being studied, etc., had become obvious. As for the fourth year, when they were deciding the shape of their preparations for graduate research and thesis, some students felt anxious about how to represent their studies. It was suggested that enduring these anxieties would have a significant effect, causing them to question their own identity again.
This study examined the structure of communications in late adolescent and their parents relationships, from a point of view of the individuation model which was proposed by Condon, Cooper, and Grotevant (1984). Thirty Japanese families (including undergraduate students and their both parents) participated in Family Interaction Task used to measure family individuation. The first 300 utterances (communication behaviors) of each family were coded into 14 categories. The frequencies of utterances in each category were submitted to ANOVA to assess the differences of communication behaviors among family member. As a result, adolescents expressed utterances indicative of connectedness (acknowledgememt, agrees with/accepts/incorporates other's ideas, requests information/validation, and states other's feeling/mindreads/dictates feeling) much more than their father significantly. In the next step of analysis, the data (11 categories except for 3 categories) were submitted to factor analysis using principal component solution with varimax rotation. This analysis showed the structure consisted of 3 components (permeability, self-expression, and separation).