This study examined the effect of over-adaptation on career decision-making in adolescents and compared the differences between Japanese and Chinese adolescents. The participants were 308 university students in Japan (male=164; female=143; unknown=1) and 278 university students in China (male=140; female=138). The results showed that Japanese adolescents who had low-level external aspect (EA) and low-level internal aspect (IA) of over-adaptation received higher ratings in the questionnaire on career decision-making than others. This suggests that internal adaptation plays an important role in Japanese career decision-making. In contrast, Chinese adolescents who had high and average levels of EA and IA, had higher ratings in career decision-making than those with low-level EA. This implies that external adaptation influences career decision-making in Chinese.
This study was conducted to show how 4 types of amae-engagers (Types A: Adaptive, B: Suppressed, C: Hesitant and D: Confused, as identified by Amae-Type Scale (ATS), Kobayashi & Kato (2015)) would differ, in the theoretically predicted ways, on the various aspects of amae processes (amae-related behaviors/cognitions, emotions, and attitudes) in the 3 (pre-, in-, and post-) phases of amae interactions; therefore, so as to demonstrate ATSʼs theoretical validity. 305 college students responded to a questionnaire to self-rate on the theoretically identified various aspects of experiencing processes in the amae interaction which they actually had engaged in. The findings demonstrated that the 4 types differentially had experienced their own amae interaction, as theoretically expected. Implications of the findings and potentials of ATS and its perspective for future amae research were discussed.