Authors outlined the hardware for the pressure and temperature measurements using fluorescence or luminescence. There are several varieties of measurement methods in the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and temperature sensitive paint (TSP). However, following items are indispensable, i.e., the fluorescence, luminescence molecules as sensor materials, the light sources to excite the molecules, the sensor such as camera to acquire visualization images, measurement objects with paints. At first, authors introduced concepts of measurement methods. Then, authors introduced a recent development trend of a camera, focusing on a dynamic range in particular. The laser emission diode (LED), laser and several light sources were briefly shown. The preparation methods of coated surface, systems to evaluate the surface were also introduced.
Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) are molecular sensors which enable high spatial measurement of pressure and temperature distributions on model surfaces. In this paper, we introduce pressure and temperature sensitive luminophores and polymers as binder materials, which are mostly commercially available. The typical combinations of a dye and a binder material are presented and their properties including pressure- and temperature-sensitivity, and excitation and emission wavelengths are shown as a guideline to select PSP /TSP. Especially, the properties of PtTFPP and Ru(dpp)3-based PSP was shown in detail. As TSP luminophores, ruthenium complex, europium complex, rhodamine, quantum dot, and phosphore are shown and a suitable temperature range for each TSP was indicated.
In this paper, the intensity based measurement method, which is the typical method used in pressure-/temperature-sensitive paints (PSP/TSP) technique, is reviewed. First, the measurement principle of the intensity based PSP/TSP method is introduced. Then, a typical measurement system and procedure are introduced. For example, the apparatus for the intensity based method is described. and the characteristics of each apparatus and the points to be noted in using them is also summarized. We discuss the error sources contributing to the uncertainty of the measurements such as the photodegradation of dye and the surface temperature distribution for the PSP measurements. Finally, some applications of the intensity based method to the pressure-temperature measurements are shown.
Pressure-/temperature-sensitive paints (PSP/TSP) and molecular tagging measurement techniques based on fluorescence/phosphorescence lifetime are reviewed in this paper. The measurement principles of PSP/TSP and molecular tagging measurements are briefly introduced. In comparison with the intensity-based PSP/TSP measurements, the relation between the fluorescence/phosphorescence lifetime and pressure/temperature independent on illumination intensity; thus, the measurement error induced by variation of illumination intensity will be reduced in the lifetime-based PSP/TSP measurements. Capturing a luminescence image of seeded dye molecules with a certain delay after a laser pulse, the flow velocity can be deduced in the molecular tagging method. The required apparatus for the measurement are discussed. Some examples of measurements are reviewed.
Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) allows us to measure pressure images on a model in high spatial resolution. It is a useful measurement tool for understanding aerodynamics on a whole model of an aerospace vehicle, a car and a train in the wind tunnel tests. However, PSP has a temperature dependency of its luminescent intensity. Thereby, temperature correction of PSP should be done to measure accurately pressure images. This paper reported the latest study of temperature correction of PSP measurement using bi-luminophore coatings.