Due to a fatal accident that occurred in 2006 for diethylene glycol (DEG) adulterated in glycerin, the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has notified the partial revision of the purity test of Glycerin in the Japanese Standards of Quasi-Drug Ingredients (JSQI) 2006 at the Notification No. 1221004 on February 21, 2008. Since the fatal accidents caused by the contamination of syrup with DEG also occurred in 2009, USP proposed the purity test of concentrated glycerin, glycerin and propylene glycol about ethylene glycol (EG) and DEG as the adulterant instead of the purity test of concentrated glycerin and glycerin about DEG on May 21, 2009 to the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group. In response to this, the Expert Committee on Excipients on JP made the decision to establish the new modified method. This paper proposes the new modified method of DEG including EG for the purity test in concentrated glycerin, glycerin and propylene glycol in JSQI 2006. This analytical method was the gas chromatographic method by using the fused-silica column 0.32 mm×30 m coated with 14% cyanopropylphenyl/86% methylsilicon polymer and the column temperature for injecting at a constant temperature of about 100ºC and raising at the ratio of 7.5ºC per minute to 220ºC. The retention times of EG, propylene glycol, DEG and glycerin were 2.45, 2.78, 6.02 and 7.66 minutes, respectively. The working curves of EG and DEG were the good correlation between their concentrations of 2.5 to 80 μg/ml and the peak areas. The resolutions between EG and DEG, and between DEG and glycerin were not less than 70 and not less than 20, respectively. Also those between EG and propylene glycol, and between propylene glycol and DEG were not less than 6 and not less than 60, respectively. The quantitation limits of EG and DEG in glycerin were 0.005% and 0.01%.
Scientific research on pleasant emotions has not progressed well as compared with unpleasant emotions like fear or anger. However, recently, the need to study pleasant emotions is increasing because they are closely related to an improvement in our quality of life. In this paper, we review neuroscientific research on hedonistic impact (“liking“) and motivation or desire (“wanting“). As for the neural substrates of pleasant emotions, the medial forebrain bundle is considered to be important. It originates from the ventral tegmentum area in the midbrain and projects to the nucleus accumbens, a part of the limbic system. This neural pathway responds to various kinds of rewarding stimuli and modifies our behavior to receive more of them. The neurotransmitter dopamine plays an important role for such motivation. A continuous expectation of coming rewards is critical to maintain dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens. The dynamics of dopamine release seems to be well accounted for by the models of the learning theory in psychology and/or the marginal utility theory in economics. When we actually decide to take something, the decision making is in process. The specific brain region, the orbitofrontal cortex, is known to be deeply implicated in decision making. Dysfunction of this region leads to impulsive choices, which then focuses on short-term hedonistic rewards and neglects long-term loss. It is apparent that so many brain regions are working together as a system to optimize our behavior to increase chances for getting rewards. This system is essential for our survival, but sometimes a malfunction leads us to pathological states like addiction. To avoid this condition, a long-term future perspective and symbiotic relationships with others are important. The impact of pleasant emotions to construct symbiosis in society would be an important future research topic.
In this paper, a novel method for preserving and reproducing human haptic sensation based on real-world haptic technology is described. Real-world haptic technology makes it possible to preserve and reproduce human motion using a paired master and slave system. Because it is possible to preserve motion information based on position trajectory and force input, future human support technology that will facilitate haptic data acquisition, physical representation, and tele-communication will be developed. Once human motions are preserved, it will be possible to process them for various applications. For example, it is possible to visualize the haptic data using frequency analyses such as Fourier transformation, wavelet transformation, etc. Visualization of haptic data represents how much force is applied by a human. It helps understanding the evaluation of skills of human side and/or surface roughness of environmental side. In addition, real-world haptics can reproduce haptic data as physical force. As a result, the temporal and spatial coupling of perception and action can be attained. This type of physical extension technology based on haptics will be important for the future of human support in our society.
Color reproduction of digital images is strongly required, but difficult to be realized by conventional color imaging systems. To realize high fidelity color reproduction, spectrum-based color reproduction scheme has been proposed, in which the spectral information of target scenes are captured by a multispectral camera, and color information is recovered by signal processing based on the information of illumination and camera devices used for recording. This paper reviews the spectrum-based color reproduction from a basic colorimetry. In addition, spectral imaging is effectively utilized in other applications, such as visualization of invisible information or target recognition based of spectral information. Some results with skin spectral images are introduced in this paper. Finally, the importance and difficulty of shitsukan reproduction, the next step of color reproduction, is described for more realistic image reproduction.
Sensing temperature is essential for organismal survival and efficient metabolism, and now we know that TRP (transient receptor potential) channels are important for detecting ambient temperatures in many species. TRP channels were first described in Drosophila in 1989, and in mammals, TRP channels comprise six related protein families (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPML, TRPP). One subunit of the TRP channel is composed of six transmembrane domains and a putative pore region with both amino and carboxyl termini on the cytosolic side. TRP channels are best recognized for their contributions to sensory transduction, responding to temperature, nociceptive stimuli, touch, osmolarity, pheromones and other stimuli from both within and outside the cell. Among the huge TRP super family of ion channels, some have been proven to be involved in thermosensation detecting ambient temperatures from cold to hot. There are now nine thermosensitive TRP channels (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM8 and TRPA1) with distinct temperature thresholds for their activation. Thermosensitive TRP channels work as ‘multimodal receptors’ which respond to various chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV1, the first identified thermosensitive TRP channel, was found as a receptor for capsaicin in 1997, and later was found to have thermosensitivity. I would like to describe the physiological significance of the thermosensitive TRP channels.
Whether pheromone signaling exists in humans is still a matter of intense discussion. In this review, the likelihood of pheromonal communication in humans is assessed with a discussion of the vomeronasal system is functional in humans; and the possible ways pheromones operate in humans. Although the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a putative pheromone receptor organ, has been implicated in the reception of pheromones in many vertebrates, it is not the only pathway through which such information has access to the central nervous system. In fact, the main olfactory system also detects pheromones. In addition, an important caveat for humans is that critical components typically found within the functioning vomeronasal system of other, nonprimate, mammals are lacking, suggesting that the human vomeronasal system does not function in the way that has been described for other mammals. Therefore, linking detection of pheromones with the vomeronasal system as pheromones is a non sequitur. Thus, in the years since the introduction of pheromones, the extensiveness of the concept has expanded. In a broader perspective, pheromones can be classified as primers, signalers, modulators, and releasers. Examples include affects on the menstrual cycle (primer effects); olfactory recognition of newborn by its mother (signaler effects); individuals may exude different odors based on mood (suggestive of modulator effects); breast crawl of newborn (releaser effects).