The development processes of agricultural life cycle assessment（LCA）were reviewed through the survey of the international conferences of LCA on agri-food sectors. As a preparation step, activities of the EU project on harmonization of agricultural LCA was studies, after discussing the reasons why agriculture is an important topic in LCA. Then, hosted years, locations, and organizers for the previous agri-food LCA conferences were identified and the trends in the topics discussed in the conferences were analyzed. The results illustrate that issues specific to agriculture were discussed from the outset and that the topics such as feeding behavior and environmental labelling were started to discuss recently. This paper was concluded with discussing how is the relationship of LCA to growing food demand due to world population increase, how to apply LCA to policy support, and how to use LCA in agricultural management.
AGRIBALYSE is a French program dedicated to producing Life cycle inventories（LCI）of agricultural products. The program focused on developing a consensual LCA methodology and providing a homogenous LCI database of French agricultural products, to support environmental labelling policies and to help the agricultural sector to improve its practices. AGRIBALYSE v1.3 database is available since 2017, containing about 150 agricultural product LCIs. A calculation tool, Means-InOut is also available. The partners are working to improve and enlarge the database. One challenge is to define the best level of accuracy, considering the different needs of users（from specific assessment of agricultural systems to diet assessment）. We plan to enlarge the database scope, from the farm stage to the food industry gate, so we can cover all life cycle stages specific to food product life cycles. ADEME’s focus for coming years is to promote further the eco-design approach in the food sector, to help companies and production chains to better include environmental performance in their strategy. With this program, France contributes to a global effort on LCA development and benchmarking for the food sector. Our experience shows the positive contribution of such national LCI databases to sustainability challenges, and the importance of transparency and cooperation at the international level.
Different international organizations and initiatives stress the growing recognition that biological diversity is a global asset of tremendous value to present and future generations. In the frame of Life Cycle studies, numerous efforts have been done in order to provide good enough indicators to assess biodiversity loss. The increasing awareness of the importance to include biodiversity loss due to land use as impact category has also motivated the UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative to build consensus and provide guidance on the use of specific impact indicators. The main goals of this paper are to introduce reader in the most common indicators to include biodiversity in LCA and to present the preliminary recommended method of the UNEP-Including SETAC life cycle initiative to include biodiversity loss in LCA. Finally, drawbacks and challenges of current methodology will be discussed. Although there is still a lot of work to be done, the path is clearly marked out and as far as more case studies could be included and local CFs（characterization factors）for specific activities could be developed, easier would be the inclusion of biodiversity assessment in LCA, and hopefully, this will lead to a better knowledge on how to preserve biodiversity.
An international effort was initiated to reach agreement on recommended default agricultural pesticide emission fractions for use in LCA. Consensual decisions on the assessment framework include（a）primary distributions are used as inputs for life cycle impact assessment（LCIA）,（b）framework and LCA application guidelines and documentation are compiled,（c）the emission framework is based on modifying an existing emission model,（d）drift values are provided by drift modelers,（e）pesticide application methods are complemented to develop scenarios for tropical regions,（f）climate, soil and application scenarios are based on sensitivity analysis,（g）default emission estimates for LCA are derived from production-weighted averages, and（h）emission fractions are reported spatially disaggregated. Based on these decisions, we recommend that（a）LCA studies should state whether the agricultural field belongs to technosphere or ecosphere,（b）additional information – e.g. pesticide mass applied – needs to be reported,（c）emissions after primary and secondary distribution should be reported,（d）LCIA methods should allow for treating the field as part of technosphere and ecosphere,（e）fate and exposure processes including crop uptake should be covered in LCIA,（f）default emission estimates should be used in absence of detailed scenarios, and（g）all assumptions should be reported.
This paper introduces activities to improve sustainability in the consumer goods and retailer industry by using the example of The Consumer Goods Forum（TCGF）with showing activities on LCA and their background information. The related activities of a company are also illustrated by using the example of a retailer, Aeon. First, goals, activities so far, and future directions were explained for work streams on refrigeration, food and solid waste, deforestation, and measurement in the environmental sustainability pillar of TCGF. Then, corporate activities on refrigeration, food waste, and sustainable procurement were illustrated using examples in Aeon to illustrate how sustainability can be improved through strategic management.
Power and industry systems include Printed Circuit Board（PCB）and manufacturers are required to conduct Life Cycle Inventory（LCI）analysis in the aspects of GHG and CO2 emissions. However, it can be difficult to obtain numerical data used for LCI of PCBs due to a large number of parts composing, and thus subjects remain in promoting LCI. To solve those problems, Power and Industry Systems LCA WG of the Japan Electrical Manufacturers’ Association（JEMA）has been working toward calculations of GHG and CO2 emission factors through development and updating of guidelines and release of the first report which is predecessor of this report. Regarding the GHG and CO2 emission factors of PCBs derived from the first report, there were still challenges such as the small number of samples and no quantitative classification. Therefore accuracy improvement of emission factors of PCBs was aspired through increasing the number of samples by additions and subdivisions, and analyzing whether numbers of layers affect GHG and CO2 emissions. As a result, authors could establish a flow chart to derive emission factors of PCBs by applying areal density and number of layers as parameters, and formulas to derive emission factors considering numbers of layers. For PCBs including active elements, GHG emission factors are 100 - 250 g-CO2eq/g and CO2 emission factors are 65 - 215 g-CO2/g, depending on numbers of layers. On the other hand, for PCBs including passive elements, GHG emission factor is 45 g-CO2eq/g and CO2 emission factor is 35 g-CO2/g, not depending on numbers of layers.
Objective. This study estimates the life cycle CO2（LC-CO2）of the melon fruit（variety: Ams melon）grown in non-heated greenhouses in Choshi, Chiba Prefecture. We specified the highest emission stage and process of the LC-CO2 and clarified the reason of that. Our result was compared with the LC-CO2 of melons grown outdoors and the hybrid calculation method using an I-O table.
Method. The functional unit is the weight of CO2 emission per kilogram of melon, otherwise known as its “carbon footprint（CFP）”. The lifecycle of a melon is classified into five stages, which can be divided into eight processes. LC-CO2 is calculated as the total amount of CO2 emitted from each process.
Results and discussion. The estimated result of LC-CO2 of the melons produced in Choshi was 1,226.3 g-CO2eq/kg. The following is the result obtained from the five lifecycle stages. 1）The raw materials procurement stage: 806.5 g-CO2eq（component ratio: 65.8%）, 2）the production stage: 262.0 g-CO2eq（21.4%）, 3）the distribution and selling stage: 58.7 g-CO2eq（4.8%）, 4）the operation and maintenance stage: 67.1g-CO2eq （5.5%）, and 5）the disposal and recycling stage: 32.0 g-CO2eq（2.6%）. As results of the comparison of the hybrid calculation method at the condition of heated greenhouse using fossil fuels and long transportation, our results are 1）the raw materials procurement stage over 80% of the total amount of LC-CO2 by the burning of fossil fuels, 2）the transportation process of the distribution and selling stage over 60% of the total amount of LC-CO2 by using air transportation, and 3）our estimation result at the same conditions（heating by fossil fuels and air transportation）are almost 4 times against the hybrid calculation method.
Conclusions. Most of the CO2 is emitted from the field preparing process in the raw materials procurement stage, especially from the fertilizer, e.g. chemical and organic, which accounts for 45.8% of the total melon LC-CO2. And in our comparison research of the growing processes between outdoor and greenhouse farming, the greenhouse melons show about 10% higher LC-CO2 than melons grown in outdoors. This result indicates the importance of greenhouse lifespans, and the recycling of greenhouses components.