Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan
Online ISSN : 1881-0519
Print ISSN : 1880-2761
ISSN-L : 1880-2761
Volume 6 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
Contents
  • 2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages Toc_1-Toc_4
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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Foreword
Commentary and Discussion
  • Shinsuke MURAKAMI, Seiji HASHIMOTO
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 76-82
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Material Stock Accounting/Analysis(MSA)is the one of the emerging areas, which aims to capture the situation of the material accumulation in our society. Material stocks should be one of our main objects of management, in the sense both of resource and waste management in the future. In this paper, 1)the importance of studies associated with material stocks is discussed; 2)the types and categorizations of material stocks are reviewed; 3)the methodologies for estimating material stocks and their characteristics are summarized; and 4)the recent studies in the area are reviewed with potential applications of the MSA results. We found out increasing number of outcomes from MSA studies, though more detailed analysis will lead to more detailed and useful applications.

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  • Koji NOMURA
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 83-87
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this paper is to give a note on recent progress in measuring capital formation, stock and services, following the revisions in the System of National Accounts(SNA)in 1993 and 2008, as well as the OECD capital manual published as of the end of 2009. This paper also discusses the future revisions of capital measurement in the Japanese system of national accounts.

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  • Ichiro DAIGO, Yasunari MATSUNO
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 88-91
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this article, we explained a new approach to predict future demand for materials based on in-use material stock prediction. Materials, such as metals, engineering plastics, and construction minerals, perform their function as long as being used in products, e.g. automobiles, machines, buildings, infrastructure, etc. Materials are consumed to meet the needs of our activities. Here, we established a hypothesis that material demand is estimated by additionally required amount of in-use stock. In recent studies of material flow analysis, material stock in anthroposphere has been classified into in-use stock and obsolete or hibernating stock. Our approach is based on time-series data of in-use material stock estimated by dynamic material flow analysis. We assumed that the in-use stock per capita will be saturated at certain amount. Prediction of demand can be calculated by mass balance among the demand(inflow), outflow estimated by the dynamic approach, and net addition to stock estimated by prediction of the in-use stock. As a case study, prediction of demand for steel used in infrastructure in East Asia was shown.

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General Articles
  • Hiroki TANIKAWA, Akio ONISHI, Yosuke TAKAHIRA, Seiji HASHIMOTO, Osamu ...
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 92-101
    Published: 2010
    Released: July 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Low carbon emission and less material input are the key factor of urban / regional environment planning. Construction sector use approximately half weight of material input of Japanese society. Successive estimation of Material Stock and Energy Consumption leads to clarify level of sustainability. The object of this paper is to clarify contribution of GIS for material stock and energy flow accounts. Material Stock and energy consumption of urban infrastructure in the near future were estimated using model with 4-D GIS (fourth dimensions geographical information systems), which includes spatial 3-D GIS with time scale. With using Historical Spatial Information, we could know successive change of material stock, energy consumption and CO2 emission, life span of urban structures, and future projection of material and energy balance of city.
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Commentary and Discussion
  • Shigemi KAGAWA
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 102-109
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Referring to the recent articles by Kagawa et al.(2008, 2009), this paper presents a methodology to estimate the effects of the automobile lifetime changes on the life cycle energy consumptions associated with automobile productions and automobile use(i.e., driving on roads)and explains about the estimation results. Finally, I mention about the importance of extending the proposed methodology and future research directions in input-output life cycle assessment.

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  • Eiji YAMASUE, Ryota MINAMINO, Hideyuki OKUMURA, Keiichi N ISHIHARA
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 110-117
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Objective. The objective of present paper is to introduce an evaluation method of the grade of elements/materials in “urban ore” using Total Materials Requirement, TMR and to show issues of recycling, especially for home appliances, in terms of TMR.
    Results and Discussion. The evaluation was carried out using the index of “urban ore TMR, UO-TMR” compared with “natural ore TMR, NO-TMR”. Assuming that only one element/material(gold, silver, copper, scrap steel, scrap aluminum or mixed plastics)is recycled from home appliances(cathode- ray tube TV, liquid crystal display TV, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner and micro wave oven),only the UO-TMR of copper is less than NO- TMR, indicating that only copper is worth of recycling in terms of TMR. For all the target elements/materials, the impact of “urban tailings” is dominant. With increasing the number of recycled element/material, the UO-TMR of gold is drastically reduced because urban tailings is allocated for all the recycled elements/materials. The contributions due to transportation process are not large for all the cases investigated, compared with other processes. The effect of allocation method, the expansion of system boundary for the processing of urban tailings and the evaluation method of inferior recycled material are discussed.

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  • Kiyotaka TSUNEMI
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 118-124
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this study is to quantify material flow and emission of nickel and antimony as an example of material stock accounting of chemicals. Also, human health risk assessment of antimony from the air is conducted based on the result of material stock accounting. As a result, it was revealed that the emission of nickel from production and processing stages was the main source, and the emission of antimony from stock and incineration was the main source. Furthermore, it is low possible of human health risk of antimony in Japan. The current study showed the usefulness of material stock accounting applied to risk assessment.

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  • Hisato OKAMOTO
    2010 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 125-131
    Published: 2010
    Released: December 15, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Japanese government selected 13 cities as Eco-Model-City(EMC)for the Low Carbon Society. Each EMC has its area-specific strategy that challenge the ambitious target of GHG emissions reduction. The City of Kitakyushu was selected as EMC in 2008 and its action plan is based on the concept of ‘Stock-type Society’. Japanese economy development has been based on “Flow-type Society”, that is to say, “Scrap & Build” economy. On the contrary, “Stock-type Society” is to make everything long-life from daily-goods to urban-biosphere. The “Stock-type Society” leads to synthetic and systematic solution of problems with regard to Environment, Economics, Quality of Life(QOL), and resources. To make “Low Carbon Society” stable, the economic system of human society should be synchronized with the eco-system of the earth, and to make the lives of following generation sustainable, “Stock-type Urban-Design” should be based on the estimated condition of the world and local areas in 2050. The long-life physical assets on the “Stock-type Society” are attractive subject to invest money. So the money assets can be changed into the physical assets. As the Institute of LCA Japan is the nearest position to “Stock-type Society”, we expect the LCA’s contribution toward this social change.

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