This paper shows how Sustainable Consumption and Production （SCP） can be positioned in the context of international policy trends in the era of Sustainable Development Goals （SDGs）. Especially, policy goals in the era of SDGs are not limited to environmental pollution prevention nor efficiency improvement of individual products and services but aiming at collaboration between socio-technological innovation and social and business model development. It can be achievable through integration into social and economic policies. We discuss that policy approaches in the era of SDGs, aiming at socio-technological system innovation, signify the collaborative approach among autonomous decentralized initiatives by setting middle and long-term goals such as decarbonization, circular economy, or one planet living.
This paper describes the development of policy evaluation indexes based on the consumers’ sufficient approach and their application results following the review on the transition of SCP policy from efficiency approaches to sufficiency approaches. First, the analysis on the relationship between consumption and sufficiency through the subjective well-being index revealed that in the sense of “emotion”, the consumption increase is hard to be linked to satisfaction, but in the sense of “evaluation of life”, satisfaction is gained as consumption increases. It also revealed that the consumption increase related to social capital is more satisfying than that of goods. Second, through considering the theoretical framework of IWI and comparing IWI with GDP, we suggested that IWI is an index that can evaluate independently the sustainability of country, region, and individual policy. Furthermore, we showed the possibility as an SCP policy evaluation index from the case of policy evaluation on social capital development utilizing Inclusive Wealth （IW） in the actual local government.
While Sustainable Consumption and Production （SCP） is the important concept that relates Sustainable Development Goals （SDGs） with manufacturing, it is difficult to grasp essential elements of SCP. This paper tries to provide plausible images of SCP by introducing an approach where we draw some scenarios of Consumer-Producer Cooperation （CP Cooperation）. This approach identified four key phrases for realizing CP Cooperation aiming at SCP; （1） transformation of consumer behavior （e.g., digitalization and visualization of information）, （2） circular production （e.g., long-use, reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling）, （3） sharing, dematerialization （e.g., function selling, leasing, and product service systems （PSS））, and （4） sufficient production, appropriate amount of production （e.g., on-demand production and demand forecasting）. This paper also gives an overview of circular economy, sharing, and remanufacturing, which are indispensable fundamental concepts for thinking of CP Cooperation.
This paper presents the popular concept of sharing economy from the perspective of life cycle thinking. The way we consume products and services are rapidly diversifying with the recent rise of sharing economy, and the concept has a potential to drive conventional consumption activities toward environmental and economic sustainability. However, the definition of sharing economy is often obscured, which poses challenge to understand the characteristics of the activity that influences the environmental impact. To clarify the environmental potential of sharing economy, we first provide an overview of the activities characterizing “sharing” from the conventional definition to that of current time. Once the conceptual system boundary of sharing economy is defined, we discuss the environmental potential from the perspective of life cycle thinking. Through the review of case studies from literature, we summarized the type of influence sharing economy could have on the intensity of the environmental impact per product.
Pretreating fruit and vegetables by blanching, which is the heat treatment for inactivation of enzyme which deteriorates the quality of fruit and vegetables, prior to the drying process can increase the drying rate, which will reduce the environmental burden from the drying process during food processing. In this study, the pretreatment and drying rate were evaluated to potentially reduce the environmental burden during the dried cabbage production process. We discussed the relationship between qualities of the dried product and environmental burden using environmental efficiency as the indicator of environmental burden, which was obtained from nutritional data for the dried product. The pretreatment by hot water blanching reduced energy consumption during the drying process by approximately 50%. The result of integration analysis based on LIME2 showed that 63.4% of the environmental burden was reduced by introducing hot water blanching before drying. Although the L-ascorbic acid content and soluble solids content decreased from blanching, environmental efficiency for the blanched sample was higher than that for the un-blanched sample. These results indicated that blanching pretreatment was an environmentally-friendly pretreatment for the dried cabbage production process.
In Indonesia, a conventional on-site wastewater treatment system which is called septic tank is commonly used to treat domestic wastewater in both of household and industrial sectors. However, it is concerned that its environmental burden is high. Starting from industrial sectors such as major factories, Japanese technology of Johkasou has been adopted as an alternative system of septic tank. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental efficiency between a septic tank and a Johkasou, which is installed in Indonesia but is originally developed in Japan, to discuss the improvement of environmental efficiency of wastewater treatment systems in Indonesia. The environmental efficiency was compared between the two systems by the amount of greenhouse gas （GHG）emissions. Nitrous Oxide （N2O）and Methane （CH4）gasses are emitted in wastewater treatment processes, and it is important to grasp the amount of those gasses because the Global Warming Potential （GWP）of N2O and CH4 are high. However, there is no helpful measured data available in Indo nesia. In this study, sampling and analyzing gasses from the septic tank and Johkasou were conducted in a factory located in Jakarta. As a result, GHG emissions which are directry emitted from the septic tank are 7.6 times higher than those of Johkasou on the operational stage; 44.8 kg-CO2eq/person/year and 5.9 kg-CO2eq/person/year, respectively. Compared with Johkasou, total GHG emissions of the septic tank were 1.8 times higher through the whole lifecycle. As a result of water quality analysis, the amount of BOD removal of the septic tank and Johkasou were 20.4 kg/person/year and 105.3 kg/person/year respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that the environmental efficiency of Johkasou is 10 times higher than that of the septic tank.
A web-based survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ values and their pro-environmental behavior. The pro-environmental behavior was classified into two types.: One of them was named “conscious”, which requires pro-environmental knowledge and judgement, and the other was “saving”, which involves practical benefit. The respondents were classified into four clusters, based on the combination of the pro-environmental behaviors types. Three types of the values were extracted, as well. They were “social justice”, “individual rationality” and “following others”. The respondents were classified into another four clusters, based on the values. The correspondence between the clusters of the behaviors and the values indicates that people in “social justice” cluster are majority in the clusters in which people intend “conscious” type behavior, and that those in “individual rationality” are dominant in “saving” type behavior. The “following others” perform intermediate behavior.