Objective. Radiation is one of the impact categories in LCA, but this category has not been evaluated in product LCA in general. However, the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant raised people’s interests in radiation. According to the World Health Organization, radon (222Rn) is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer in public, after smoking. Main pathway of radiation exposure to radon is indoor inhalation. However, there are still few studies for the development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method of environmental radiation considering the exposure pathway and radon. This study is aimed at the development of the impact assessment method of irradiation caused by inhalation of radon in living environment. Methods. The method is composed of 4 analysis; fate analysis, exposure analysis, effect analysis and damage analysis. Fate analysis was carried out using the parameters in typical housing in Japan. We estimated inteRnal and exteRnal exposures using conversion factors and the result of fate analysis. Risk of cancer in each organ and loss of life expectancy by cancer were applied in effect analysis and damage analysis respectively. Damage factor, main output of this study can be expressed as loss of life expectancy caused by a unit of emission of radon. Damage factor enables us to compare with the health effects caused by another impact category such as global warming and air pollution. Results and Discussion. Damage factors obtained from this study ranges from 4.4 × 10−11 to 1.5 × 10−10 (DALY/Bq), which was consistent with the existing study. Lung cancer was the primary impact for damage factor. Damage factor of female was estimated higher than that of male. The damage factor of young people becomes higher, because the sensitivity of inteRnal inhalation exposure of young people is estimated higher. These results were applied to a case study of housing. The result revealed that the health impact of radon was twice of that of global warming. Conclusions. A methodology evaluating health damages due to the exposure to radon emitted to indoor air from the use of building materials. Damage factor was consistent with the existing study. This study enabled us to calculate damage assessment in LCA considering Japanese conditions and the differences of exposure age and sex. These considerations are expected to improve the reliability of LCIA. The development of LCIA method which takes into account the differences in the various conditions of housing and the updated epidemiological studies are required.
Objective. In general, there are many CO2-abatement measures including renewable energy utilization. However, we might have to consider the reduction of the indirect CO2 emission, e.g., behavior and/or preference etc., on life cycle assessment (LCA) basis. For elderly people, there are surely difficulties in reducing CO2 emission. That is, they would not be able to take the specific countermeasures such as promotion of PV system and/or eco-car, because of their limited incomes. For them, somewhat reasonable motivation without any obligation might have to be provided. In this paper, we investigated the relationship between the specific CO2 emission and salt content of the cooking for the elderly who worry about their health condition, and they would try to pay more attention to the high-blood pressure problem. Due to this fact, a good motivation for their behavior of CO2 emission abatement would be accrued. Results and Discussion. Here, we selected the 171 menus for elderly people from the cooking database of “Bob & Angie”. The selected menus are satisfied with the condition of their calorie intake per day of 1800 kcal/day. At the same time, the numerical data of salt content of each menu was provided in the cooking database. For all of the menus, we estimated the life cycle CO2 emission in the functional unit of g-CO2/kcal. From the results, we estimated the correlation between the CO2 emission and salt content based on the four categories: the category of main and side dishes and/or soup, that of food preparations of boiling, steaming and grilling etc., that of food materials of meat, fish and vegetable, that of different cuisines of Japanese, Western and Chinese dishes. As a result, the coefficient of correlation between the CO2 emission and salt content for the category of main and side dishes and/or soup was the highest of 0.996. The average CO2 emissions for the category were 1.115 g-CO2/kcal in the main dish, 1.801 g-CO2/kcal in the side dish and 2.907 g-CO2/kcal in the soup. In the other categories, the coefficients of correlation were between 0.905 and 0.986. Conclusions. In this paper, we were able to find out the evidence that there would be the specific correlation between CO2 emission and salt content in cooking for elderly people. Due to their efforts to reduce the risks of illness, that is, their desires to remain physically healthy, it implies that the CO2 emissions for their dietary behavior are mitigated.
Objective. In order to evaluate the damage to inhabitants along the line resulting from conventional railway noise, it is necessary to evaluate influence by the noise quantitatively to consider the pattern of the noise in addition to the noise level. In this paper, damage by the railway motor noise is quantified taking driving pattern into consideration as well as noise level based on traffic noise evaluation method of LIME2. Results and Discussion. As a result of comparison of damage caused from noise by railway carriages equipped PMSM and IM through the life cycle, it is confirmed that 3dBA of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level based on actual measurement is corresponded to 56% reduction of health damage. In addition, as a result of integrated evaluation of plural environmental effects, the influence of damage by noise is 91% and 94% of total in the case of PMSM installed carriage and IM, respectively. Conclusions. In this paper, an evaluation model to quantify damage by railway noise is developed by reflecting the driving pattern of carriages based on LIME2. Using this model it is proved that the influence caused from noise is relatively high, therefore it is meaningful to involve the effect of noise to the total environmental analysis. In addition, in order to reduce the environmental impact, for the large influence in the operational stage, it is effective to control fuel consumption and the discharge of the environmentally load material in the operation stage.