Pholiota microspora (“nameko” in Japanese) is one of the most common edible mushrooms, especially in Japan, where sawdust-based cultivation is the most dominant method accounting for 99% of the production. The current strains for sawdust cultivation in Japan are considered to have been derived from a single wild strain collected from Fukushima, Japan, implying that commercial nameko mushrooms are derived from a severe genetic bottleneck. We tested this single founder hypothesis by developing 14 microsatellite markers for P. microspora to evaluate the genetic diversity of 50 cultivars and 73 wild strains isolated from across Japan. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated that sawdust-cultivated strains from Japan were significantly less genetically diverse than the wild strains, and the former displayed a significant bottleneck signature. Analyzing the genetic relationships among all genotypes also revealed that the sawdust-cultivated samples clustered into one monophyletic subgroup. Moreover, the sawdust-cultivated samples in Japan were more closely related than full-sibs. These results were consistent with the single founder hypothesis that suggests that all commercial nameko mushrooms produced in Japan are descendants of a single ancestor. Therefore, we conclude that cultivated P. microspora originated from a single domestication event that substantially reduced the diversity of commercial nameko mushrooms in Japan.
We performed in-vitro germination tests on seeds from five Gastrodia orchids (G. confusa, G. elata var. elata, G. elata var. pallens, G. nipponica, and G. pubilabiata) using one Marasmiaceae and two Mycena isolates. Mycena sp. 1 promoted germination of all five Gastrodia orchids, with root and/or tuber formation observed in G. confusa, G. nipponica, and G. pubilabiata. No additional growth was observed in the other two orchids. Mycena sp. 2 induced G. confusa, G. elata var. elata, and G. nipponica germination, whereas Marasmiaceae sp. 1 induced G. nipponica and G. pubilabiata germination. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the two Mycena isolates represent distinct lineages within the Mycenaceae. Mycena sp. 1 and Marasmiaceae sp. 1 are closely related to Mycena abramsii and Marasmiellus rhizomorphogenus, respectively. Our results imply that Mycena and marasmioid fungi play important roles in early development in Gastrodia species, and that Mycena fungi in particular may be common mycobionts of Gastrodia species. Root and/or tuber development was observed with four plant-fungus combinations, implying that these associations persist throughout the life cycle, whereas G. elata var. elata may require different associates over time. Our findings will contribute to elucidating the mycorrhizal associations of mycoheterotrophic orchids throughout their life cycle.
Rhizopogon roseolus is a basidiomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus that inhabits mainly coastal areas. Understanding the response of this fungus to salinity at each stage of its life cycle will lead to elucidation of the strategies for its propagation. This study examined the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on basidiospore germination and mycelial growth of both homokaryotic and heterokaryotic strains of R. roseolus, on nutrient agar media with varying concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 150, and 300 mM). Regardless of the presence of NaCl, R. roseolus basidiospores germinated and the germlings grew, forming compatible fusions. In addition, all multispore strains, including homokaryons and heterokaryons, grew under these NaCl conditions. Most of these strains had an effective concentration inhibiting mycelial growth by 50% value greater than 300 mM of NaCl. These results indicate that R. roseolus can germinate, grow, and mate in the presence of NaCl, allowing it to propagate in saline habitats.
We describe two new species of resupinate Sistotrema sensu lato (Cantharellales) collected in Japan: S. flavorhizomorphae and S. chloroporum. Both species have urniform basidia with more than four sterigmata and monomitic hyphal system, oil-rich hyphae in subiculum, which is typical for this genus. Sistotrema chloroporum is characterized by poroid hymenophore partly yellowish-green, basidia 4-6-spored, medium-sized basidiospores (4.5-6.5 × 3.5-6 µm), and broadleaf forest habitat. Sistotrema flavorhizomorphae is characterized by hydnoid-irpicoid hymenophore, bright yellowish rhizomorphs, basidia 6-8-spored, small basidiospores (3-3.5 × 2.5-3 µm), and pine forest habitat. Phylogenetic trees inferred from the fungal nrDNA ITS and LSU and the rpb2 sequences supported that both species were distinct and grouped with other ectomycorrhizal Sistotrema and Hydnum species, but their generic boundary was unclear. Mycorrhizae underneath basidiomes of both species were identified and described via molecular techniques. Mycorrhizae of S. chloroporum have similar characteristics to those of other Sistotrema s.l. and Hydnum species, i.e., S. confluens and H. repandum, whereas S. flavorhizomorphae has a distinct morpho-anatomy, for example, a distinct pseudoparenchymatous mantle. Comprehensive characterizations of basidiomes and mycorrhizae improve the taxonomic analysis of mycorrhizal species of Sistotrema s.l.
Typhula ishikariensis and the related fungi were separated into three biological species by morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as DNA sequences and mating reactions. We propose that the T. ishikariensis complex should be divided into three species (T. ishikariensis, T. canadensis and T. hyperborea) and two varieties (T. ishikariensis var. ishikariensis and var. idahoensis). Typhula hyperborea was reappraised to be recognized also as a separate species of the T. ishikariensis complex.
We describe two new species of Fulvifomes based on morphological observations and phylogenetic investigations. Both species were identified as Phellinus rimosus by former mycologists, but both are morphologically distinct from authenticated specimen of P. rimosus. Fulvifomes boninensis is characterized by perennial basidiomata, a sulcate pileus surface becoming rimose, lack of a distinct crust on the pileus surface, subdimitic hyphal system in the context, and ellipsoid basidiospores. This species is endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan, and is specific to the host Morus boninensis, a red-listed tree species. Fulvifomes imazekii is characterized by perennial basidiomata, sulcate and velutinous pileus surface, lack of a crust on the pileus surface, dimitic hyphal system in the context, and broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. This species is specific to Berchemiella berchemiaefolia, and is known only from Mt. Yokogura-yama, in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Fulvifomes boninensis and F. imazekii are considered threatened, because of their high host specificity each with a threatened tree species as well as the limited distribution of the former and the extremely small number of “mature individuals” of the latter. The following new combinations were also proposed: Fulvifomes aulaxinus, F. pappianus, and F. tepperi.