There is the problem on the self-value for the approval to the human, and there is the indication on the difficulty of the interpersonal relation in the adolescence. In this study, it was made that how the aspect of the self-changed in the interpersonal relation was examined to be a purpose. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five university students, and the results were analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. 14 concepts, 4 subcategories, and 4 major categories were generated. The major categories generated are «Difficulties from a growth history», «an attitude toward the outside world», «painful self-understanding», and «Acceptance and search for new ways». The negative image precedes in the interpersonal relation from the growth history, and the internal attitude is produced, and it becomes negative. On the other hand, it was suggested that acceptance of negative aspects in the relationship leads to a realistic compromise instead of trying to avoid harm.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a social self-image scale (junior high school student version) and examine its reliability and validity. As a result, three pronounced factors have been extracted: 'a social life sense of fulfillment', 'a feeling of self-affirmation' and 'initiatives to address issues'. To examine reliability, both Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest method were applied. This scale was also significantly correlated with social self-efficacy. Thus, the new scale was shown to have good reliability and validity.
Nurses' empathy is an important dimension of the therapeutic alliance between patients and nurses. The objective of this study was to verify the model that metacognition directly relates to perspective taking, and that rationality and intrapersonal emotional intelligence can mediate between metacognition and perspective taking, and that perspective taking relates to other-oriented emotional reactivity in nurses. Questionnaires obtained from 838 nurses working in five hospitals were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that metacognition related to rationality and intrapersonal emotional intelligence, and rationality and intrapersonal emotional intelligence related to perspective taking. In addition, monitoring and control within the subfactors of metacognition related to perspective taking. Furthermore, perspective taking and metacognitive knowledge related to other-oriented emotional reactivity. The results of this study suggest these relations may be one source of proof of causation.
In our study, we examined the psychological structure of junior high-school students participating in compulsory martial arts, focusing on their image of Kendo. Subjects of the survey included 389 students (156 boys, 233 girls, and average age 13.7 ± 0.8 years) enrolled in public junior high-schools in Chiba prefecture. In the 10 sections of the survey form, beginning with the phrase "What is Kendo," we asked the subjects to complete the sentences with what came to their mind. We further requested them to choose one sentence that had the strongest image of Kendo. Subsequently, text mining was performed on all the sentences we obtained, and the extracted words and phrases were factor-analyzed.
Consequently, it became clear that the image of Kendo differs depending on whether the subjects had experience in Kendo lessons. Factors such as "Budo, Kiai, and Yuko-datotsu" were recognized by those with Kendo experience, while factors such as "Culture, Reigi (etiquette), and Budo" were recognized by those without Kendo experience. The factor of "Budo" was common for both sets of students with regard to their image of Kendo.
The relationship between perceived social support, mother's attachment styles, and child-rearing related stress were investigated. Participants were mothers of kindergarteners (N =137). They completed the Adult Attachment the Scale, the Social Support Scale, and the Child-Rearing Related Stress Scale. The results of a path analysis indicated the following. (1) 'Secure' attachment had a positive effect on perceived social support. (2) 'Avoidant' attachment had an adverse effect on perceived social support. (3) Perceived social support had adverse effects on two child-rearing related stress factors. (4) 'Anxious/ambivalent' attachment had no effect on perceived social support but had direct positive effects on two child-rearing related stress factors. The implications of these results for the discussion on intergenerational transmission of attachment styles between children and mothers are discussed.
Yips is a long-term movement disorder consisting of fitful involuntary movements that occur in elaborate-skill-demanded motor behavior. Japanese baseball players have physical symptoms (i.e., sense of wrist being locked) and psychological symptoms (i.e., negative thinking) due to the onset of yips. Although, clinical psychological approaches with the goal of declining yips symptoms, improvement methods that can be easily carried out by on-site coaches and teammates have not been clarified. In order to establish easy-carrying improvement methods, the actual condition of yips player's surroundings should be clarified, but in fact, how yips players are supported by coaches and teammates also not yet been clarified. Thus, the purpose of this study was clarifying the actual supports that yips baseball player received from their teammates using qualitive study method. Result showed that teammates of yips baseball players do "Technical guidance," "Acceptance for yips symptoms," "Introduction of professional," "Proposal of practice menu," "Support for acceptance of yips symptoms." These supports correspond the concepts of social support.
The present study aimed to investigate 1) the basic survey on body image among early adolescence girls in Japan, 2) the relationships between the body appreciation, cognition, and behavior among early adolescence Japanese girls. A total of 214 early adolescence girls participated the web-based survey. Results showed that (a) 55.7% girls recognized themselves as overweight even though their actual weight was normal, and 17.4% girls recognized themselves as overweight even though their actual weight was underweight, (b) 71.5% girls are on a diet, (c) early adolescence Japanese girls tend to idealize underweight, and there was large gap between ideal BMI and actual BMI. Additionally, results showed that a significant correlation between body appreciation and body recognition. On the other hand, the correlation between body appreciation and diet behavior was not significant. The present study revealed severity of early adolescence Japanese girls body image disturbance and internalization of thin ideal, and also the relationship between body appreciation, body recognition and diet behavior.
The practice of Inochi-tendenko is extremely effective in saving lives. Though this practice has been highly featured since the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the degree to which people recognize its effectiveness remains low, and very little empirical analysis has focused on the psychological barriers to its practice. Using a newly developed paradigm of a supposed sediment-disaster dilemma, we show that emotional judgment in system 1 decision-making is a key psychological determinant of the hesitation to practice Inochi-tendenko. We also attempt to experimentally demonstrate one possible way to control such emotional judgment. We believe our findings have implications for disaster-prevention education and discuss possible concrete ways to provide education on the practice of Inochi-tendenko based on these findings.
This study aims to demonstrate how Japanese schoolteachers evaluate their cooperation with Yogo teachers and school counselors. Using a web-based survey of 421 Japanese public elementary and junior high school teachers, the current study demonstrated that coordination-type and corroboration-type cooperation with Yogo teachers and school counselors were positively evaluated as providing effective support; however, consultation-type cooperation with them was not positively evaluated as providing support for students with difficulties. Based on these findings, this study discusses potential psycho-educational service that could be used to strengthen the possible relationships between schoolteachers, Yogo teachers, and school counselors.
We investigated the differences between images of Seiza and normal upright sitting. Seventy-nine undergraduates were showed photographic stimuli of these two types of sitting posture in a counter-balanced order. They rated impression of each posture by a 16-item semantic differential scale. The results of t-test for 73 participants showed that Seiza was perceived to be more submissive, unusual, ceremonious, and gloomy relative to normal upright sitting posture (ps<.001). The results were discussed in terms of Japanese cultures and evolutionary perspectives.
We conducted solution-focused assertiveness training with the communication goal of the trainee as the goal of the training. When the effect was examined from the GCR in the picture-frustration study, the Ego Defense GCR decreased after training. This suggests that the solution-focused assertive training may cause a variety of trainee responses.
The present study aimed to examine the crime's image for SCIT questions. Subjects were 145 (male:45, female:100) students of the university. We conducted a collective survey. The results showed that many robbery cases were imagined such as knives, cash, mask and at night. In the robbery cases on the street of a residential area were imagined motorcycles, bags, men, snatch theft and at night. The image of a gun was considered to be influenced by TV dramas and movies. It is necessary to collect and scrutinize more data based on these results.