Immersion method, cup method (modified closed patch method) and dropping method (localized immersion method in which the test solution is dropped on interdigital webs) were studied. The results obtained by the cup method were not correlated to those obtained by the immersion method. The dropping method was considered as being suitable for evaluation of skin-roughness caused by detergent solution, by which the relation between detergent concentration and skin-roughness was shown. Five surface active agents were evaluated by the dropping method. Sodium laurylsulfate (SLS) and cetyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (CDMBC) caused skin-roughness in the low concentration. The action of sodium lauryltrioxyethylenesulfate (SLTOS), which was usualy used in liquid shampoo formulation, was milder than SLS. Poly-oxyethylenelaurylether (POL), which was non-ionic one, and distearyldimethylammonium chloride (DSDMC), which was cationic one possessed rather high molecular weight, did not cause skin-roughness. Deffating rates of these surface active agents were measured and compared with the results of skin-roughness evaluetion by the dropping method. There was a rough correlation between skinroughnese and deffating rate in lanolin.
This thesis is to report on the effectiveness of a newly synthesized product called Neo-Takanal-Aspartate made of Neo-Takanal and Aspartic acid. In short, it has been synthesized with an expectation to maintain the effectiveness of Neo-Takanal on hair growth and enhancing it by means of adding the physiological function of aspartic acicd (activating of metabolism and improving the inner body condition). Thus, ultimate object of developing more effective agent through synergistic effect has been attained. As conclusion it can be stated that the newly developed NEO-TAKANAL-ASPARTATE maintains the same effect of Neo-Takanal, if not better, decreases the toxicity and, in addition bestows an easy excess in using it in various preparation. The authors would like to thank Dr. Kitasu Suzue, the honory professor of Kyoto University, and the mebers of Japanese Research Institute for Photosensitizing Dyes, for support of this study.
It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the sorption of surface-active agents and water formulated in the hair conditioner on to human hair through the use of the radioactive tracers. As the results, it was found that three components in the hair conditioner employed for the study sorbed on to human hair. 1). The sorption of Lauryldiethanolamide (Lauryl-Amide) reached to the saturated point 4 or 5 hours after treatment. The percentage of Lauryl-Amide sorbed on to the samples were found to be 0.5 and 0.4 of the hair weight 5 hours treatment respectively. 2). The sorption of Phosphoric Acid Ester of Tetraethoxy Lauryl Ether reached to the saturated point 12 hours after treatment and their percentage were found to be 0.7 and 0.4 of the hair weight respectively. 3). The amount of penetrated water to the hair samples was also increased with the time after treating the hair conditioner and reached maximum after 2 hours. The maximum percentage of water penetrated into hair were found to be 1.3 and 1.2. The sorption of these compounds formulated in the hair conditioner on to the hair will be discussed, however, further study would be required to find whether it was the adsorption or absorption of surface-active agents on to the hair. The study to determine the mechanism of the sorption on to human hair will be carried out with the radioautography.
The effect of electrolytes on the viscosity of the emulsions of liquid paraffin stabilized by a series of alkyl ethoxy phosphates have been investigated. It is a well known fact that the viscosity of emulsions is changed by the addition of electrolytes. Our experiments showed that the viscosiy of the emulsions decreased as the added electrolytes increased and it began to rise again after passing through a minimum point of viscosity. The viscosity of the emulsions stabilized by trilauryl ethoxy phosphate decreased most remarkably by the addition of electrolytes. By using this surfactant we obtained the following facts. The minimum points of viscosity were included in the concentration range between 20 and 60m equiv./1 of the electrolytes and they had no relation to the valence of ions or their characteristics: and anions of electrolytes exert influenec on the decrease of the viscosity while cations have the reincreasing effect. However, the above-mentioned principles are not applicable to salts such as Na2CO3 or Na3PO4, which are hydrolized in aqueous solutions to make them alkaline. Friling et al. recently reported that a latex emulsion stabilized by soap is obtained in the form of gel when the concentration of electrolyte is low. But when the concentration of elecrolyte increased, the viscosity of emulsion was decreased. The reasons are as follows: the droplets are surrounded by the water layer which is more highly viscous than ordinary liquid water, and these hydrated particles approach the state of close packing. Supposedly, the effective volume concentration was decided by the volume of the polymer plus the volume of the charged double layer which prevented the particles from approaching one another. According to our data, it may be assumed that not only the electrical double layer but also the hydration layer on the surface of droplets exert effect on the change of the viscosity.
Solubilization behaviors of sodium dodecylpolyoxyethylene sulfates (SDPS) with oxyethylene units (p) from 0 to 10 in the presence of added salts have been studied in connection with the zeta-potentials of the micelles. Solubilizing power of SDPS for Yellow-OB increases with increasing p and, at a definite value of p, it increases with decreasing zeta-potential or effective charge of the micelle. The presence of calcium chloride lowers the zeta-potential more effectively than that of sodium chloride, and consequently increases the solubilizing power more effectively. From these results, the relation between the solubilizing behavior and the electrical nature of the micelles has been discussed by taking into account the structure of the micelles.
Butoxypolyoxypropylene glycol and butoxypolyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene glycol with varying molecular weights were prepared utilising the ring-opening addition reaction of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, and viscosity, pour point, solubility in water, surface tension of the aqueous solution, and other properties were measured. They have high viscosity index and low pour point which are characteristic of excellent synthetic liquid oil. They behave completely differently towards water from petroleum hydrocarbons and fats and oils; they become more hydrophilic as the oxyethylene content increases. Butoxypolyoxypropylene glycol becomes more and more hydrophobic as the molecular weight increases, but is soluble in water to some extent at low temperatures. The aqueous solutions of the compounds studied are considerably surface active and butoxypolyoxypropylene glycol is particularly so at molecular weights of 1, 100-1, 700. As mentioned above, these polyalkylene glycol derivatives are very distinguished synthetic liquid oils having surface activity.
To clarify the properties and behaviors of nonionic surfactants, ternary phase diagrams containing homogeneous and polydispersed P. O. E n-dodeca-nols as a component were studied. 1) The behaviors of homogeneous (N) and polydisperse (P) nonionic surfactants can readily be illustrated in the diagrams as the region of O/W or W/O solubilization, gel formation, etc. 2) The difference between the properties of homogeneous P. O. E. n-dodecanols (N4 and N8) and those of commercial products (P4 and P8) is easy to distinguish in the diagram. 3) The influences of the length and distribution in polyoxyethylen chain upon the phase diagram were discussed. 4) The influences of oil component on ternary systems are evident in those diagram (n-hexane and cyclo-hexane).
It was shown through experiments that pigments addition in emulsions can be related to emulsion stability. The stability evaluation was conducted by preparing emulsions containing nonioric emulsifiers, adding thereto pigments (oxide red of iron, ochre, clay and carbon black from 0.1 to 10% for the quantity of emulsions) and keeping such mixtures at the temperatures ranging from 50° to 80° for an hour. Emulsion stability is affected considerably by pigments addition and in most cases is broken. However, it was recognized that the degrees of the affection vary according to the kind and concentration of emulsifiers, the kind of oils, etc., which compose the emulsions. Some differences in the effect are caused by the kind of the pigments added. The pH value also has some effect on the breaking state of emulsions. It is generally noted that the higher temperature is retained, the more outstanding this phenomenon of emulsion breakage becomes.
On August 8, 1967, the Japanese Ministry of Public Welfare announced the list of the ingredients which were authorized to be available in its cosmetic industry, in which 4 types of Kankoh-so, namely No. 101, 201, 301 and 401 are involved as the authorized materials. We made our utmost efforts in research, production and application of these materials in order to improve these substances in many directions and succeeded in creating some new derivatives from them. These new derivatives have almost the same physiological actions with the original Kankoh-so, however, have fairly low toxity and better solubilities in several solvents than the originals. In this paper, their synthesizing method, physical properties and medical researches were described in detail. We believe that the new derivatives are more favourable as cosmetic ingredients.
Among several investigated methods on the stability of CaHPO4⋅2H2O crystal for polishing agent of dentifrice, TGA No. 46 method (Set Test) adopted by Toilet Goods Association of United States is the most popular way. When a thin slurry of CaHPO4⋅2H2O in glycerine-water solution is heated in test tube, if the CaHPO4⋅2H2O used is unstable against the dehydration, there is a tendency for the powder to become partially dehydrated on aging, thereby causing the paste to become gritty, stiffen or no free flowing. Then, Set Test observed on condition of the slurry or paste, is ready method for determination of stability of the polishing agent CaHPO4⋅2H2O. Moreover, there is another method which determines the extent of the dehydration when CaHPO4⋅2H2O transits to CaHPO4. However, they have several drawbacks. One of the difficulties is that the composition is the different from dentifrice composition and another is that the operation is troublesome. Now authors have carried on study on crystalline transformation of CaHPO4⋅2H2O by X-ray diffraction method. It was found that transformation of CaHPO4⋅2H2O crystal was accelerated by addition of CaCO3. X-ray diffraction method using CaHPO4⋅2H2O-CaCO3 mixture is satisfactory way, because the composition is similar to dentifrice composition and is able to be determined under the condition of paste or slurry. In this paper, the effects of several components of dentifrice on the stability of CaHPO4⋅2H2O crystal, have been studied by above mentioned method. Paste sample was filled into sealed glass bottle and placed in the 50°C thermostat. The value of 2.79A/3.87A increased proportional to apatite growing. The time needed to reach until 2.79A/3.87A=50 was measured and converted to its logarithmic value, which the authors named as “Index of Apatite Growing Time.” Effects of several components in dentifrice against index of apatite growing time are as follows: (A) Anionic surface active agent: CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na[SDS]>CH3(CH2)10CON(CH3)-CH2COONa[SLSa] (B) Solvent (Liquid): Glycerine>Pure water (C) Grade of CaHPO4⋅2H2O: Grade treated with crystalline stabilizer at its manufacturing>>No treated Grade (D) Crystalline stabilizing Agent: Addition>>No addition Influence of kinds of magnesium phosphate on stability of CaHPO4⋅2H2O are very much different with kinds of them. In case of addition of Mg (H2PO4)2, it was accelerated to dissolve Mg (H2PO4)2 itself and CaHPO42H2O. On the other hand, in case of addition of MgHPO4⋅3H2O or Mg3(PO4)2⋅8H2O, solubilities of magnesium phosphates added are small and therefore they have inhibitive effect against the dissolution of CaHPO4⋅2H2O. Inhibitive effect of magnesium phosphates was as follows: Mg3(PO4)2⋅8H2O>MgHPO4⋅3H2O.
A physical model equipped with two heat-sensitive thermistors, of which only one is coated with polymer film for adsorbing odoriferous material in ordor to measure the odor, was established. Each thermistor is connected with Wheaston bridge, by which the change of adsorption heat generated by adsorption of gaseous odoriferous substance on the coating film of the thermistor is transformed into the change of resistance, thence into the change of electric current that is recorded through DC-amplifier. This apparatus employed “Two Path System”. Each response of twenty one species of odoriferous substances was measured by the apparatus and corresponding human olfactory response measurable by the same as an appropriate sensory scale. In examination of the relationship between the ammetric response by the apparatus and human olfaction, it was discussed whether there be possible that this apparatus would serve for estimating odor intensity and characteristics as substution for human olfaction.
Depth of penetration have been measured continuously from time to time by the use of a penetrometer of the type JIS K 2530 with some modification. Velocity of penetration was determined by graphycally differentiating the curve correlating the depth with time. Shearing stress at the osculating plane of the apex of needle of the penetrometer reduces with increase of the depth. As the results, relation of the velocity and the shearing stress can be correlated in a figure. By extrapolating the correlating curve to the point at which the velocity is zero, yield value of waxes can be easily determind. It was found that needle penetration number usually used as an index of hardness pf waxes inversely proportional to the 0.6 power of the yield value. Consequently, the needle penetration number can be employed as an quantitative index of the hardness of waxes.
It is a well-known fact that, in choosing and evaluating compound perfume that is fit for the aim of cosmetic base, it is nesessary for us cosmetic chemists to take into consideration, as a basic idea, its colour, change in colour, change in odour, solubility, effect upon emulsification, the problems of irritation and allergy and other conditions, not to speak of the quality of its colur. When the compound perfume itself and change in quality of the perfume prepared by odouring the base are evaluated from the standpoint that compound perfume appeals to the sense and therefore has much that is psychological, choice and evalution are made by the subjective element though human sense of smell and vision, and further though the sensuous examination by a group of the exained called “panel examination”. Since compound perfume is an integrated product of various kinds of chemical substances, it is a matter of course that physical and chemical change should take place, and it can well be imagined that discolouration and change in odour with the lapse of time. I think that, considering that compound perfume is not merely the product of sensuous mixture, the examination of the conditions of discolouration and change in odour requires not only judgement based on a subjective view, psycological and physiological, by means of human sense, but also objective data obtained by means of physical analyzers. I have found that not merely by the discriminating method conducted by experienced persons only, but also by an objective method (qualitative and quantitative method) the numerical expression can be applied to the choice, evaluation and control of the quality of compound perfumes.
It has been confirmed that Pseudomonas is dominant contaminant in commercial shampoo and shows an important role in initial product spoilage due to microbial activity. And then, bactericidal activity of several preservatives used in cosmetics has been tested in model shampoo using practical aging test. 1) Sixty two per cent of isolated bacteria from commercial shampoos were identified as Pseudomonas species. The rest was unidentified gram-negative rods (21%) and gram-positive rods (17%), 2) Many of the Pseudomonas strains from shampoo could assimilate sodium lauryl sulphate as sulphur source and some of them could produce alkylsulphatase. 3) In bactericidal activity of preservatives tested for isolated bacteria, Vancide 89 and nitrofran derivative showed pretty effect but carbanilide, bisphenol, salcylanilide and benzoate derivative showed less effect. 4) Contamination by alkylsulphatase positive Pseudomonas into commercial shampoo contained alkylsulphate is an inherent problem. It is essential for us to take the practical aging test in using alkylsulphatase positive strain of Pseudomonas in order the effective bactericidal preservative may be selective.
The measured value of the delivery of sebum by application of the osmic acid filter paper method is largely affected by various factors including sample processing. It was discovered that the factors affecting darking reaction by application of osmic acid are humidity, temperature, light and gaseous phase in the order of the affecting degree. In case of colorimetry, it is considered important to obtain uniform pore patterns on the filter paper. We discovered, through our study, how it may be obtained. Unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, etc. absorbed onto the filter paper are remarkable in the fact that they decompose in proportion to the degree of unsaturation. It was recognized, however, that sebum remains stable for a long period even though it contains unsaturated fatty acids. We explain herein certain conditions required for making the existing relatively simple osmic acid filter paper method more reliable, under the conditions with were discovered based upon our study as mentioned above briefly.
The Present authers are intended to compare the composition of sebum of skin diseased individuals with that of healthy individuals. Since the lipids, obtained from forehead or cheek of each individual, are very small amounts, the gravimetric method which is used by several previous investigators is not suitable for the analysis of each component of sebum. Consequently, several colorimetric methods for the componts were introduced in the present investigation. For the chromatographic separation of the component lipids, Florisil (magnesium silicate) was used instead of silisic acid as an absorbent. The present paper described the seperation method and the quantitative method of each component of on individual (total lipids; 0.5-3mg), and the composition of sebum, including cholesterol, of several individuals.
The case of patients with cosmetic dermatitis, especially with photo-contact dermatitis was outlined. Over a five year period of observation of cosmetic dermatitis, chloasma and melanosis of Riehl were statistically compared with our Fukuhara's report (1959). Recently, the number of patients with cosmetic dermatitis has increased and especially for the male cases. The age group most addicted was ten to thirty years of age. As for the exanthema, the erythematous or squamous type has increased to 43.5% of all cosmetic dermatitis. 115 patients were examined by means of the patch test using the toilet materials. 80 positive cases were noted, 75% of soaps, 73% of emulsions, 45% of foundations positively reacted. The influence of perfumes, skin temperature and skin humidity were studied on the photo-contact dermatitis. Experimental dermatitis on rabbits with fluorescent creams was observed by means of ultraviolet light irradiation. Aggravation was proportional by the duration of the irradiation and the concentration of the fluorescent substances. The skin temperature and humidity influenced also on the onset of the photo-contact dermatitis. Physical function of the normal skin, penetration of the skin, photo-contact toxity and percutaneous penetration of vitamines and hormones were discussed.