Today, it is assumed that men are expected to fulfill not only traditional male roles (e.g., breadwinner) but also new less traditional roles (e.g., household chores). However, the tasks involved in constructs of these new male roles are unclear. This article focused not only on traditional male roles but also on new ones, and it tried to organize them by analyzing previous research in order to define each task and the new theoretical framework of male roles. Traditional male roles, which have been researched in depth abroad, were organized by five concepts: high social status; psychological and physical strength; high agency; low effeminacy; and superiority to women. New male roles, which have become more known recently, were organized by four concepts: commitment to household responsibility; emancipation from emotional restriction and need for toughness; high communion; and attentiveness to women. Based on these categories, I proposed four domains for comprehensive male roles: family; psychological and physical strength; being a desirable person; and behavior toward women. From these, I discussed the future issues that research on male roles should address.
This paper proposes a model explaining both the development and occurrence of delinquency and crime from the perspective of attachment theory. First of all, factors regarding the development of delinquency and crime are summarized, which includes attachment, and then their interactions especially at the onset of delinquency in adolescence are discussed. Then, the relationship between individual differences of attachment and offenses, such as sexual crime, violent crime, and drug abuse, are reviewed. It was concluded that each delinquent behavior connotes deviant forms of both attachment behaviors and attachment figures, that is, such actions relieved offenders from afraid, and in that sense, their actions were thought of as solutions, not problems. The Dual Circle Model of development and occurrence of delinquency and crime are presented as a contribution to the forensic field based on this information. Finally, a comparison with preexisting theories is discussed mainly regarding rehabilitation intervention. Future tasks and prospective studies are also suggested.
The purpose of this review is to investigate the concept of media literacy relative to critical thinking. The findings identified several associations. (1) At the stage of access to media, media literacy research emphasizes the acquisition of skills for device manipulation and knowledge of audiovisual information. In contrast, critical thinking research emphasizes the importance of linguistic ability and indicates that the critical thinking process begins from the decision on whether critical thinking should be used. (2) At the stage of analysis and evaluation of the media information, it is possible that enjoyment of certain content might inhibit critical thinking on that content. (3) At the stage of information transmission, the media use might be characterized by taking action towards others and be more controlled by factors related to social aspects than that of other stages. The implication of these results for future research on media literacy and critical thinking is discussed in detail in this paper.
Many sentence processing studies focus on either syntactic or semantic processing. By contrast, although the temporal traits of sentence processing, such as the rate limit of sentence processing, are an important issue, little is known about its mechanism. In this paper, we review studies on the temporal traits of sentence processing in terms of both reading and experimental methods. First, we introduce the differences in reading performance between different reading methods (silent and oral reading). Silent reading reflects a natural method of reading and has been well studied. Next, we assessed experimental methods for examining the underlying mechanisms of silent reading. An experimenter-paced experiment was employed, that includes RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation), since it is easy to use and suitable for examining temporal traits. By reviewing various studies, we define the relevant parameters using an experimenter-paced method. The experimenter-paced reading method can measure the minimum processing time of a word and the syntactic processing that constitutes the sentence processing mechanisms. It also can examine the detailed temporal traits of sentence processing by fitting the data to the functions of processing speeds and responses.