In various social situations such as elections or shopping, individuals are often persuaded in multiple directions by different sources (i.e., multiple-source-and-direction persuasion). In this paper, we discussed the attitude change process in this type of situation, based on two dual-process models of persuasion: (1) the heuristic-systematic model and (2) the elaboration likelihood model. These models assume single-source-and-direction persuasion and cannot be applied without modification to multiple-source-and-direction persuasion. Therefore, this paper focuses on the simultaneous consideration of multiple persuasive messages as a process particular to this situation. In addition, by using a concrete experimental design, we demonstrated in this paper how a hypothesized model accounts for a recipient’s attitude change. We emphasized the significance and the future prospects of clarifying the attitude change process in multiple-source-and-direction persuasion.
In this paper, we reviewed studies that investigated the development of the regulation of emotional expression during childhood in light of the current understanding and implementation of this process in children, and we discussed the mechanism of its developmental trajectory. To understand the process, socialization by parents, understanding of the mind, and daily communication experiences may be important. To implement this process, socialization and the development of the ability of inhibitory control and emotional knowledge may also be important. We suggest a developmental mechanism whereby the understanding and the implementation of the regulation of emotional expression may not be isolated factors but instead influence each other. We concluded the paper by discussing the future direction of the study of the regulation of emotional expression.
How do infants extract useful information from a world of distractions? Social learning from others enables infants to acquire information rapidly and efficiently that otherwise would require more time and cognitive resources. In this paper, we aimed to clarify the social learning mechanism of infants by focusing on from whom and how they learn. First, we introduced the theory of natural pedagogy, which argues that young infants can acquire knowledge from ostensive signals. Second, we reviewed recent studies on infant social learning from the viewpoint of two critical factors: agents and ostensive signals. In particular, we provided studies that focused on what type of agent is appropriate as an information source for infant learning and how ostensive signals work effectively for infant learning. Third, we provided tentative suggestions on how the foundations of infant social learning are generated, maintained, and formed in early development.
In this paper, I focused on stereotype suppression strategies to prevent stereotypic responses because these strategies are commonly used in the context of person perception. Suppressing stereotypic thoughts ironically increases stereotypic accessibility and use (i.e., the rebound effect). First, I described the position of stereotype suppression in stereotype research. Second, I considered the strategies for stereotype suppression without a rebound effect. The study of stereotype suppression has been developed based on the mechanism of thought suppression. However, in this article, I suggest that some effective strategies used in thought suppression cannot be applied to stereotype suppression. Stereotypes are suppressed in the context of person perception; therefore, I reviewed past findings with regard to replacement thoughts and propose effective strategies for stereotype suppression. It is necessary to integrate theory and findings of related area for developing the research of stereotype suppression.