Twenty specimens of the smallest known scorpionfish, Sebastapistes fowleri (Pietschmann, 1934), collected from Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands and recently found in museum collections, represent the first records of S. fowleri from East Asia. The Philippines and Guam were previously regarded as the northernmost records of the species. In addition, 15 specimens of S. fowleri from the Timor, Coral, and Tasman Seas are also reported, these being the first records from Australian waters. The Tasman Sea represents a new southernmost range extension.
Seven species of agromyzid leafminers are recorded as the first representatives of this family from Laos. They include one new species, Japanagromyza laosica, and six previously described species, one belonging to the genus Melanagromyza, four to Japanagromyza, and one to Agromyza. Of these, Agromyza phragmitidis Hendel, 1922 is also newly reported from Sabah in Malaysia.
Three new species of the stenogastrine genus Eustenogaster van der Vecht, 1969 are described. They are E. panaiensis sp. nov. from Panay Island, the Philippines, E. clypeata sp. nov. from Thailand, and E. vietnamensis sp. nov. from southern Vietnam. A key to the species of Eustenogaster including these new species is also given.
The ostracod genus Aurila is distributed worldwide in shallow marine areas, and fossils of this genus are commonly found in the Late Cenozoic strata of Japan. We describe a new species of Aurila, A. tsukawakii, from the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Lower Pleistocene Omma Formation, Toyama Prefecture, central Japan. Its geological and geographical occurrence suggests that this species originated in the Late Pliocene within the semi-closed Sea of Japan around 3 Ma as an endemic species and likely went extinct by the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 0.4 Ma) at the latest. Another related species of Aurila, Aurila sp., appeared in the Sea of Japan during the Late Pleistocene (ca. 0.1 Ma) at the latest, and continues to inhabit the Sea of Japan along the Japanese coast today. We briefly discuss the ecology, biogeography, and distributional pattern of normal pores in the median area of the carapace of these two species.
A new species of diastylid cumacean, Vemakylindrus chernyshevi, is described on the basis of material collected from east of Honshu, Japan, at a depth of 504 m. It appears closest to V. multiuncifer Gamo, 1998 and V. hystricosa Gerken, 2002. From V. multiuncifer, the new species is distinguished especially by the direction of the pseudorostrum, the armament of the carapace, the shape of the antennule, and the armament of the telson. The length of the pseudorostrum, the shape of the spines on the carapace, and the structure of the telson and pereopods serve to differentiate the new species from V. hystricosa.
A new species of tanaid, Chauliopleona sinusa, is described on the basis of material from Shijiki Bay, Nagasaki, and Tomioka Bay, Kumamoto, southwestern Japan, including both male and female specimens. The female is distinguished from those of other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: pereonites with straight lateral margins; maxilliped basis without long setae; cheliped completely devoid of carpal shield; propodus and dactylus with strong dorsal crenulation; pereopod 1 with carpus bearing ventrodistal row of spines. The male may be separated from that of C. hansknechti Larsen and Shimomura, 2007, the only congener for which the male is known, by its pleonites without posterior protuberances, cheliped propodus and dactylus with strong dorsal crenulation, and carpus with a robust expansion and very weak shield.
Eleven species representing four genera of freshwater horsehair worms (Gordiida, Nematomorpha) have been known from Japan. The presence of representatives of the genus Gordionus was likely, but until now the available material did not allow such a determination. We here report several specimens of Gordionus chinensis (Villot, 1874) from the Yumitehara River in Nara Prefecture, which differ only in one minute detail from the original description of this species. Characteristic for this species are sparse knoblike structures occurring between the cuticular areoles. In the Japanese specimens, these knobs occur at the midpoint of the common border between pairs of neighbouring areoles and also in the corners where several areoles meet, but in the description of the Chinese holotype, such knobs occur only in the former position. One male specimen from the same locality differs distinctly from the others in having shorter bristles flanking the cloacal opening and longer spines on the inner sides of the tail lobes. We regard it as representing a new species, herein named Gordionus kii.