The purpose of this paper is to develop the logic of unit construction in school music education based on the concept of the generating of music and the theory of reconstruction of experience by J. Dewey. The concept of the generating of music is based on Dewey's theory of reconstruction of experience, which is considered as the purpose of education. The method for reconstruction of experience is "inquiry". The process of inquiry is the transformation from an uncertain situation to a certain situation. This transformation is accomplished by the cycle of "immediate experience-reflective experience-new immediate experience". This cycle works in every unit of thinking and can be conceptualized as the process of learning. The aesthetic inquiry, including musical inquiry, has the same structure as general inquiry even though musical inquiry has its own characteristics due to its unique material. Therefore, the cycle can be applied to both music inquiry and music learning process. By using the cycle as the framework of unit construction in school music learning, three elements for unit construction have been found: experience of inquiry, reflection of inquiry, and evaluation of inquiry. From this logic, "immediate experience-reflective experience-new immediate experience" is presented as a model of unit construction based on the concept of the generating of music.
The purpose of this paper is to review lessons of traditional Japanese music from the viewpoint of "meaning generation", as analyzed in a lesson of a song, "Monouri-uta". First, a theory of lesson structure, i.e., how lessons of traditional Japanese music based on the principle of meaning generation should be, is formulated based on Dewey's theory. Next, a lesson on traditional Japanese music structured on the above theory has been carried out in a 6th grade music class for the song "Monouri-uta" and the phases of meaning generation in the musical experience has been analyzed. The following conclusions on the lesson structure of traditional Japanese Music based on the principle of meaning generation has been found: 1) The setting for learning should be where adequate mutual interaction can occur with traditional Japanese music styles or traditional Japanese sounds. Children will thus be able to proactively gain command of traditional Japanese musical idioms such as "Aino-te" and "Rhythm with gradual acceleration". 2) The setting should be where one can feel and discriminate the qualities generated in traditional Japanese music. To this end, learning should occur during involvement with others.
The purpose of this paper is to show the process of how students construct their extracurricular music activities. Students at school play or listen to music not only in classrooms but also at after school club activities. Using ethnography as the method, this paper will focus on high school students in popular (band) music clubs and find out how they construct their music activities. The followings are the points that have been shown in this paper. 1) When students construct and maintain their music activities at a popular music club, two contexts operate, "self-achievement of music goals" and "achievement of human relationships". Music club activities can be classified into four sections from the crossing of these two axes. 2) "Achievement of human relationships" is the key to construct and maintain music activities. It was difficult to continue playing music when concentrating on one's self-achievement. In order to construct and maintain the music activity, it was essential for students to make good relationship with other members. 3) When constructing and maintaining music activity, girls attach importance to constructing human relationships whereas boys have strong need for achievement in playing music and becoming more skillful, Girls also tend to play music not only for improving their skills but use music as a way to build relationship with others. 4) The result suggests that group formation would be a major key for successful music activities in school music education. We should not ignore the fact that human relationship plays an important role when actually constructing and maintaining music activity. In other words, forming groups of individual acting separately would not work. Group formation should be based on each individual's meaningful choice and each individual should be able to attach meaning to the group itself. Successful human relationship is the key for construction and maintaining music activities.
This study attempts to review the meaning and methods of experiencing another culture's arts by viewing the learning of music in relation to its cultural aspects (climate, everyday life, history). First, the meaning of experiencing other cultural arts has been clarified based on J. Dewey's Art Experience Theory. Next, a music class at a junior high school in Japan on the Korean folk play, Ganggangsulrae, planned and conducted by the researcher, has been analyzed. Students understood that Ganggangsulrae is closely related to the life of people living in the region and that it expresses those peoples' emotions. If we have what J. Dewey says "the attitudes basic in other forms of experience", the narrow-minded accommodations of other cultures will be a thing of the past. Additionally, having an attitude and awareness of comparing arts of one's own culture with that of other cultures will serve to re-discover one's own culture and thus broaden and deepen personal experiences.
This study aims to reveal the development process of children's musical expression generated from where systematic environmental configurations are made based on simple musical expression observed in children's play. Three stages of children's expression process have been derived by investigating "fertility of expression": 1) expression being generated from inspiring experiences, 2) the empathy of the inspiring experiences developing into activities of musical expression, and 3) the expression being devised by the enriched inner world. Instruction plan for four-year-old class in a public kindergarten has been made in order for children to develop activities by relating seasonal play, musical expression and creative expression. Environmental configurations from children's play have been observed, and the development of expression activities has been analyzed from the viewpoint of the relationship between inner and outer worlds. The following conclusions are derived: 1) In the first stage, by the teacher conveying a musical appearance generated from inspiring experience to other children, the appearance develops to be a musical expression. 2) In the second stage, setting a situation by the teacher for children to look back on their play produces positive communication between children, which becomes the basis of responsible musical expression. 3) In the third stage, when the teacher picks up and introduces utterances about ingenious expression, children develop their own musical expression. As these three stages are in order, fertile musical expression activity can be developed by giving systematic environmental configurations based on children's situation during their play.
The purpose of this paper is to verify the method of successfully incorporating the aspect of culture in the unit construction and to verify its effectiveness. The following three results have become clear by analyzing music lessons of appraising at the second grade of an elementary school. (1) If the information on the aspect of culture is given when children are perceiving/feeling the structure of music, the connection between the two is easier for the children to understand. (2) Providing the information on the aspect of culture that relates to the structure of music is effective in studying music. (3) Grasping the connection between perceiving/feeling the structure of music and the information on the aspect of culture enables children to move toward a deeper understanding of the music. These results made clear that incorporating the information on the aspect of culture in the situation when children are perceiving/feeling the structure of music is effective in music study.