本稿の目的は, 近年, 国際政治の重要な主題となっている 「保護する責任 (R2P)」 概念およびセキュリタイゼーションの議論を手掛かりに,政治的時間の諸相を明らかにすることである。R2P概念は2001年に有識者委員会によって提唱されたが, 国連での受容が進む過程でその内容が大きく修正され, 現在, 国連事務総長報告書 (2009年) における概念規定が国際的な共通理解となっている。本稿は, セキュリタイゼーションの理論的視座から2001年および2009年のR2P概念を比較することで, 「時間」 と権力および政治の関係, すなわち時間・権力・政治のトリアーデを考察する。この考察から明らかになるのは, R2P概念の変遷とともに, 同概念の基盤となっていた時間・権力・政治の関係が, 「政治的時間の構造化による権力の制御」 から 「政治的時間の脱構造化による権力の伸張」 に転換したということである。最後に, 本稿の明らかにした政治的時間の諸相が現在の政治状況にいかなる示唆を有するのか, 簡単に触れる。
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is an emerging norm regarding the national and international protection of populations from genocide and mass atrocities. After the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty proposed the principle of R2P in 2001, the idea was unanimously adopted by member states of the United Nations (UN) at the General Assembly in 2005 and 2009, and also used by the Security Council as a rationale for international action in Libya in 2011. The fact of this normative development is a puzzle, because the R2P potentially represents a challenge to state sovereignty for both developing and developed countries, and also because existing literature argues that norms are less likely to be created in the issue area of sovereignty and security. Nevertheless, it is important to ask why the R2P norm has been increasingly accepted by UN member states.
Researchers who have attempted to answer this question tend to describe its chronological and historical process, but do not clarify or identify actors, factors and mechanisms which have promoted the norm diffusion of R2P. In addition, constructivist scholars who have been engaged in explaining norm diffusion processes pay attention to the role of norm entrepreneurs who persuade actors to accept their newly advocated norms by changing actors’ preferences. However, based on such explanations, it is difficult to understand the case of R2P norm diffusion, since the agreement of R2P in 2005 was achieved while there was a group of member states who were suspicious of or strongly opposed to the norm, including the United States. The purpose of this article is thus to elucidate the political process in which the R2P norm has diffused by analyzing why and how UN member states unanimously agreed upon R2P in 2005 and 2009.
The article concludes that mechanisms of persuasion and negotiation among UN member states functioned successfully in gaining a consensus and promoting norm diffusion of R2P. In the early stage of norm diffusion, agreement is likely to be achieved through negotiation in order to accommodate various preferences of member states and seek mutual concessions. The agreement on R2P in 2005 through such negotiation was then a reference point by which norm entrepreneurs successfully persuaded member states to accept the R2P norm. Through persuasion by such entrepreneurs as the UN Secretary-General, his special adviser and NGOs, many states which were skeptical of R2P in 2005 changed their discourse in its favor. As a result, member states by consensus adopted the General Assembly resolution on R2P in 2009. This shows that norm entrepreneurs succeeded in stimulating the norm diffusion by persuading member states to change their preferences on R2P.