2002 年 51 巻 3 号 p. 121-132
As the first step to constructing a new method for a series analysis of the traditional milk processing system, “milk processing elements” were proposed in this paper. A milk processing element was defined as a goal-oriented technique used by human beings in milk processing, such as “churning” which is a procedure intended to extract butter by stirring the milk. The conception of this milk processing element is totally different from the milk processing which is used to explain the process in modern milk factory. Twenty-seven milk processing elements have been identified. The meaning of each element has been clarified using data from 33 papers which adequately report milk processing conducted by local livestock holders in each case over Eurasia and Africa. Human beings have been milking livestock for thousands of years and have developed various techniques for milk processing. The milk processing elements can fully describe those accumulated human beings' techniques upon milk.