A 71-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of left orbital pain, headache, diplopia and left-sided ptosis, which she had suffered for two months. On examination, the patient had loss of visual acuity, left-sided ptosis, lateral gaze disturbance, and was diagnosed as having left orbital apex syndrome. An abnormal signal to the left orbital cone was detected on MRI. Serum β-D-glucan was increased, and serum Aspergillus antigen and antibody were both positive. Although antifungal drugs (voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B) were administered, the symptoms deteriorated. The patient then underwent optic nerve decompression surgery and was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, which gradually improved the patient’s symptoms, Aspergillus hyphae were confirmed by pathological examination. To obtain good prognosis for patients with orbital apex syndrome associated with Aspergillus infection, optic nerve decompression surgery should be considered.
We report a patient of 68-year-old woman who developed numbness of feet in 2008. Ataxic gait disturbance, truncal ataxia, muscle weakness of lower limbs have gradually appeared and she couldn’t walk without assistance in 2013. Her cognitive function declined subacutely in 2014. When she was admitted to our hospital, it was difficult to fully evaluate her neurological symptoms and cognitive function. The tendon reflex were absent and Babinski reflex showed positive in both sides of the lower limbs. Diffusion weighted image of MRI showed high intensity in cerebrocortical area, and variation P102L prion protein gene mutation was detected. We diagnosed her with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease. Cerebellar symptom such as ataxic gait occurs as the initial manifestation in 90% of patients with GSS disease. Her initial symptom was numbness of lower limbs and cerebellar symptom gradually appeared during the course of disease. In addition, her cognitive function declined six years after the onset. This case presented atypical clinical course as described above. Consequently, it led to diagnostic delay in GSS disease.
We report the case of a 72-year-old man who had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis in his childhood. Thereafter, he had suffered from paresis involving the left lower limb, with no relapse or progression of the disease. He began noticing slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy in the upper and lower extremities in his 60s. At the age of 72, muscle weakness developed rapidly, and he demonstrated dyspnea on exertion and dysphagia. He died after about 14 years from the onset of muscle weakness symptoms. Autopsy findings demonstrated motoneuron loss and glial scars not only in the plaque-like lesions in the anterior horns, which were sequelae of old poliomyelitis, but also throughout the spine. No Bunina bodies, TDP-43, and ubiquitin inclusions were found. Post-polio syndrome is rarely fatal due to rapid progressive dyspnea and dysphagia. Thus, the pathological findings in the patient are considered to be related to the development of muscle weakness.
A 61-year-old alcoholic man was admitted to our hospital because of disturbance of consciousness. He also exhibited external ophthalmoplegia, diplopia and mild rigidity, but tendon reflex was normal. On brain MRI, diffusion weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map depicted high intensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum. DWI showed high intensity, but ADC map depicted iso-intensity in bilateral precentral gyri. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) was diagnosed. After intravenous drip of vitamin, his symptoms improved rapidly and the abnormal MRI findings in the splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral precentral gyri disappeared gradually. MBD is pathologically characterized by demyelination and necrosis in the corpus callosum, which are generally caused by cytotoxic edema. Our case suggests that vasogenic edema may occur at the early stage of the MBD.
Abstract: Here, we present a case of right eyelid drooping in a 79-year-old man. Neurological examination revealed ptosis of the right eye without severe painful eyelid swelling and redness. An ocular motility examination of the right eye revealed upward limitation and downward overshoot. The results of routine blood examinations were within normal limits, and no autoantibodies were detected. Orbital magnetic resonance images revealed mild right eyelid swelling and lacrimal gland enlargement, indicating orbital inflammation. The ocular discharge was positive for Staphylococcus hominis by culture and the patient was diagnosed as having acute dacryoadenitis. Treatment with topical and systemic administration of antibiotics rapidly improved symptoms. Ocular infection is not usually suspected in the absence of local severe painful swelling and redness, and painless acute dacryoadenitis presenting as ophthalmoplegia and ptosis may be misdiagnosed. Orbital inflammation may rapidly progress to orbital cellulitis with treatment delay, which may also lead to aggravation of ophthalmic prognosis. Therefore, neurologists should be aware of the possibility of acute dacryoadenitis occurring without the local severe inflammatory findings mimicking neurological diseases, and acute dacryoadenitis should be considered in patients with ophthalmoplegia even in the absence of severe painful eyelid swelling and redness.
The patient is a 72-year-old Japanese woman. Seven years prior to admission, multiple nodules in her left lung were found. Bronchoscopic biopsy of the nodules did not provide a confirmative diagnosis, and probable diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made. Follow-up CT scan of the chest revealed reduction in size of the lung nodules. She was admitted to our hospital due to progressive cognitive impairment and difficulty in walking that lasted for 5 months. On admission, athetotic involuntary movement was observed in her lower extremities, predominantly in the right side. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture of the patient were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal drugs resolved the cognitive impairment, the difficulty in walking, and the involuntary movement. We assessed the cognitive impairment and observed the clinical improvement of the patient, with the use of neuropsychological examinations. To our knowledge, there has been only a few reported case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis presenting with treatable cognitive impairment and involuntary movement.
We report the case of a patient with bilateral blephaloptosis associated with a recurrence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the midbrain. A 70-year-old man experienced acute onset bilateral blephaloptosis; the other ocular movements, except for medial rectus muscle in the right eye, were not impaired. Pupils were isocoric and light reflexes were prompt. Other cranial nerves were intact. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed abnormal enhancement in the midbrain and peri-ventricular regions. FDG-PET revealed an abnormal positive signal in the midbrain, similar to the distribution seen in the MRI scan. Cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid showed large atypical lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the recurrence of DLBCL in the midbrain caused bilateral blephaloptosis. The oculomotor fascicle is localized in the paramedian ventral midbrain. The fascicular fibers are divided topographically into four regions; the lateral, medial, rostral and caudal regions. In three-dimensional arrangement of the oculomotor fascicle, the fibers to the levator palpebrae superioris muscle and medial rectus muscles are located adjacently in caudal regions. Thus, we speculate that recurrence of DLBCL in the midbrain involving the right oculomotor fascicle caused blephaloptosis in the right eye, and then, infiltration of DLBCL to the left oculomotor fascicle subsequently caused blephaloptosis in the left eye. This is a valuable case to be documented in which neurological site of lesions consistent with those are found in radiological study.
A 60-year-old woman had transient weakness of the legs and urinary retention for six weeks. She presented with a gait disorder and was admitted to the hospital. She showed symptoms of paraplegia, tingling in the lower extremities, dysuria. She underwent an MRI, and T2-weighted images showed an enlargement of the thoracolumbar spinal cord and high intensity signal from Th3 to the medullary cone, and a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image showed abnormal vessels anterior to the spine cord. Cervical and spinal angiography documented a dural arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction that was fed by the right vertebral artery and the right ascending pharyngeal arteries and drained into the perimedullary veins. Surgical therapy improved her symptoms and MRI images. Craniocervical junction DAVF with thoracic-medullary cones lesion is rare.
We report the case of a 73-year-old woman presenting with hypersomnia and loss of appetite. She suffered from diabetic nephropathy without receiving dialysis, in addition to hypertension, which was well controlled without marked fluctuation. There were no objective neurological findings. Her laboratory findings showed renal failure with 3.7 mg/dl of serum creatinine and decreased serum sodium and potassium. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) with vasogenic edema, which was distributed in the dorsal midbrain, medial thalamus, and hypothalamus. After we addressed the electrolyte imbalance and dehydration, her symptoms and MRI findings gradually improved, but faint high signals on MRI were still present 3 months later. Orexin in the cerebrospinal fluid was decreased on admission, but improved 6 months later. We diagnosed uremic encephalopathy with atypical form PRES showing functional disturbance of the hypothalamus.
We report the case of a 62-year-old man who presented with malignant lymphoma as recurrent multiple cranial nerve palsy after spontaneous regression of oculomotor nerve palsy. He developed ptosis and diplopia due to right oculomotor nerve palsy. Brain MRI/MRA showed no abnormality, and he recovered with conservative medical management. Three months later, he showed diplopia due to right abducens nerve palsy and facial pain and trigeminal sensory loss. Neurological examination revealed multiple cranial nerve palsy involved cranial nerve III, V, IX, and X of the right side. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels were normal, and cerebrospinal fluid examination was unremarkable. Steroid and subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin therapy didn’t improve his symptoms. Six weeks after his admission, he showed rapid enlargement of the cervical lymph node and the right tonsil, and post-contrast T1-weighted MRI showed enlargement and enhancement of the left infraorbital nerve, the bilateral cavernous sinus, the bilateral facial nerves, and the left trigeminal nerve. The histopathologic examination of the tonsil biopsy revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The cause of these symptoms was thought to be infiltrating the cavernous sinus, and adjacent nerves. Spontaneous regression of malignant lymphoma is an exceptional event, but this possibility should be considered so as to the correct diagnosis and proper treatment.