Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is categorized in Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. The clinical feature of BPAN is global developmental delay in early childhood, followed rapid progression of cognitive disfunction and parkinsonism in adulthood. This case was pointed out intellectual disability at the age of 9, followed left dominant progressive parkinsonism from the age of 31. Brain MRI showed the T1-weighted signal hyperintensity of the substantia nigra with a central band of hypointensity and the T2 star weighted image hypointensity of substantia nigra and globus pallidus presenting dominant at right side. DAT SPECT also showed specific binding ratio decreased dominant in right side. She was diagnosed BPAN based on her genetic test revealing a novel mutation (c.411dupT) in WDR45. No studies reported detailed parkinsonism like laterality in BPAN. This case indicates the left dominant parkinsonism was caused by right dominant iron deposition to substantia nigra and globus pallidus in view of MRI findings and DAT SPECT.
We performed examinations of a 73-year-old, right-handed man who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, with cognitive dysfunction including severe Wernicke’s aphasia. Although he had never previously been interested in arts, use of a coloring book, recommended by his wife, led him to start drawing. A few years after the onset of brain disease, the patient began to copy pictures of landscapes. The lesion was in the left hemisphere and his work showed a strongly realistic tendency, thus we think that this case demonstrated characteristics of acquired savant syndrome. Along with the increase in drawing ability, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), such as shopping and use of public transport, were also considerably improved in this patient. On the other hand, results of neuropsychological tests, such as the Standard Language Test of Aphasia, were not improved. We concluded that a sense of accomplishment from the drawing activity and communication with supporters might have led to improvement of IADL in this case.
A 16-year-old male with language disorders, such as motor aphasia or mutism, was hospitalized on day 4 after the onset of fever. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on admission revealed lesions of the corpus callosum and brain white matter. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer) on day 7 shows hypoperfusion (with right dominance) of bilateral upper parietal region. His condition improved gradually with symptomatic treatments alone, and he was discharged on day 13. The lesions on the MRI disappeared by day 15. Although this case might have suffered from leukoencephalopathy, clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) type II was suspected from the reversible splenial lesion. Except for the elevation (640 times) of mycoplasma pneumonia antibody titer (particle agglutination) in the serum, the blood tests and cerebrospinal fluid findings showed no significant abnormalities. We then considered this encephalopathy was related to mycoplasma pneumonia infection. Since no symptoms of mycoplasma infection except for neurologic symptoms were observed, indirect mechanism, such as immune-mediated reactions, is suggested to cause encephalopathy in this case.
Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) with heterozygous mutations in the titin gene (TTN) is characterized by respiratory failure developing from the early phase of limb weakness or gait disturbance. Here, we describe a characteristic distribution of muscle involvement in three members of a HMERF family with a TTN mutation. Despite the differences in severity exhibited among the father, daughter and son, the systemic imaging studies showed a similar pattern among these individuals. The semitendinosus and fibularis longus muscles were selectively affected, as described previously. In addition, we found marked atrophy in the sternocleidomastoid and psoas major muscles, regardless of the disease severity. The atrophy in selective trunk muscles observed in routine CT scans can be useful for the differential diagnosis of hereditary myopathies with heart and respiratory failure.
A 88-year-old man suddenly presented with aphasia and right hemiparesis. The diffusion-weighted image of MRI showed ischemic lesions on the left middle cerebral artery area, and MRA showed the left intracranial artery (ICA) occlusion. Therefore, we diagnosed him as having acute ischemic stroke and treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT). The DWI of MRI showed ischemic lesions on the left middle cerebral artery area, and MRA showed the left ICA occlusion. Therefore, we performed MT and continued best medical treatment, but ICA was reoccluded. Six day later, aspergillus was found in the thrombus from ICA. Then, we considered that ICA occlusion was caused by aspergillus. We experienced a patient specified the cause by thrombus pathology. The pathological diagnosis of the thrombus getting by MT is usefulness for stroke etiology.
A 68-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for progressive dizziness, gait disturbances and weight loss for 18 months. The patient was alert and showed dysphagia and a marked tendency to fall backward. Electronystagmography showed bilateral vestibular dysfunction and audiometry showed right sensorineural hearing disturbance. Cerebrospinal fluid exam showed mononuclear pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. On 18F-FDG PET/CT, abnormal uptake was observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes, from which biopsy specimens were obtained. Histological findings showed non-caseous granuloma and a diagnosis of bilateral vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve palsies due to neurosarcoidosis was made. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement in her clinical symptoms. Neurosarcoidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients showing progressive easy falling and dysphagia.
The patient was a 40-year-old woman who was previously diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and myasthenia gravis and had received prednisolone and tacrolimus for more than 7 years. In February 2017, she noticed pain in her lower back and weakness of the lower limbs, and was referred to our hospital on day 5. She had shingles in the right lower thoracic dermatomes and Brown-Séquard syndrome with right-sided dominant weakness in her lower limbs and left-sided superficial sensory disturbance below the L1 level. Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated myelopathy was suspected because of her symptoms and clinical findings. Despite the immediate administration of intravenous acyclovir after hospitalization, she lost consciousness and experienced a seizure related to cerebral hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe on the night of day 5. MRI showed enhanced lesions along the spinal cord and leptomeninges of the brainstem and temporal lobe. VZV-IgG and VZV-DNA were positive in the cerebrospinal fluid. Based on these clinical features and laboratory findings, she was diagnosed as VZV-associated vasculopathy and myelopathy. She subsequently had multiple cerebral infractions and hemorrhage, and developed sudden cardiopulmonary arrest on day 6, culminating in death on day 17. Autopsy showed that inflammatory mononuclear cells had infiltrated the vascular walls of the spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry revealed that some neurons and macrophages in the white matter of the spinal cord were positive for VZV. In addition, atrophic neurons, satellite cells surrounding these neurons, and infiltrating macrophages were immune-positive for VZV at the L2 dorsal root ganglia. These findings were consistent with VZV-associated vasculopathy and myelitis. Under immunosuppressive conditions, VZV can cause shingles and neuronal complications such as vasculopathy and myelitis, which are sometimes fatal despite the immediate administration of intravenous acyclovir. New treatment drugs or drugs to prevent VZV activation are desired.
A 69-year-old female developed subacute diplopia, right peripheral facial nerve palsy, bilateral upper and lower extremities dysesthesia and weakness 50 years after silicone injection for breast augmentation. Motor conduction study revealed prolonged distal latency and reduced amplitude in the median, ulnar, and peroneal nerves. Sensory conduction velocities were reduced in the median and ulnar nerves, and sensory potential in the sural nerve could not be recorded. While intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was ineffective, explantation of silicone breast implants improved her neurological symptoms. Histopathological study of axillary lymph node revealed foreign body granulomas and macrophages phagocyting silicone. The patient was diagnosed with human adjuvant disease presenting clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Human adjuvant disease should be considered in the patients with implants like silicone and neurological symptoms.
The patient was a 35-year-old woman. At the age of 1, she had undergone resection and radiation therapy for neoplastic lesions in the pons. She had a history of gelastic seizures when she was in elementary school, and brief lapses of the neck and truncal muscular tone and convulsions on the left face occurred at the age of 23. After a generalized sharp wave in the ictal electroencephalogram and electromyogram recording, left orbicularis oris muscle contraction was observed followed by sudden cervical extensor atonia. Seizure propagation was noted in the cerebral cortex, left facial nerve nucleus, and brainstem reticular formation. In a simultaneous electroencephalography with functional MRI, the blood oxygen level-dependent effect related to generalized sharp waves was observed in the vicinity of brainstem lesions in addition to a decrease in bilateral frontal and parietal lobes signals, as detected in generalized seizures. These findings suggest that the lesion could be a part of the epilepsy network. Although most epileptic seizures are derived from the cerebral cortex, it is important to note that brainstem lesions are involved in seizures in the patient presented in this study.